Staphylococci are part of the normal intestinal microflora. On 25% it consists of coccal microorganisms. The appearance of Staphylococcus aureus in humans is often associated with nosocomial infections, but there are other ways of infection.
Start of problems
It should be understood that all babies are born with a sterile intestine. The first application to the breast begins to colonize the lactobacilli. But, in addition to them, other microorganisms enter the intestine, creating a conditionally pathogenic microflora.
It is not necessary to panic if a staphylococcus aureus was found in the intestine. It is part of the normal microflora, of course, provided that the positive bacteria can restrain its growth. When evaluating the results of the analysis, it is important to pay attention to the concentration in which it is located. Normal level is 10 3. Although ideally in the intestine of this coccal microorganism should not be. But we must understand that in most cases the problem is not that there is too much Staphylococcus aureus, but that useful microorganisms can not contain its growth.
Symptoms of the disease
Most often, problems begin with a decrease in immunity. This condition contributes to the fact that begins to actively multiply Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine. Symptoms of the disease in most cases are pronounced.
The patient begins a loose stool (frequency - more than 8 times a day). Stools in this case are abundant, watery, can be with an admixture of blood and mucus. In children and adults, often there are diaper rash, which are difficult to treat. Sometimes the disease begins suddenly. At a relatively low temperature there are pains in the abdomen, which are accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting.
These problems begin because the golden Staphylococcus secretes toxins. Symptoms of infection are similar to severe food poisoning. Ignore the disease can not, because in neglected cases, infection can cause death.
To establish the exact diagnosis it is possible by means of the special analysis. In the laboratory, sowing of feces is done and the microflora is determined. And not always the cause of problems is golden Staphylococcus aureus. Other pathogens are present in the intestine, which can also lead to the development of severe intestinal infection.
For example, if as a result of the survey it was found that the concentration of Staphylococcus aureus is 10 5. and Klebsiella is 10 9. then with a high degree of probability it can be assumed that it was the latter microorganism that caused the problems. Each case should be evaluated by an infectious disease doctor. It is he who can choose the optimal treatment.
Problems in infants
When evaluating laboratory studies, one should remember that there is nothing to worry about if an adult has detected a Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine in a concentration not exceeding 10 3.
Little is the case with young children. In the first year of life they have this microorganism should not be. After a year they look at the quantitative indicator and already determine the seriousness of the situation.
Naturally, one can not ignore the situation when a golden staphylococcus in the intestine of a baby was found. Symptoms of the development of the disease can be as follows: watery or slimy mushy stool, repeated up to 15 times a day, regurgitation, vomiting, bloating. In the presence of such signs, a child's examination is mandatory. If a pathogenic microorganism mentioned above is found, the possibility of a fecal-oral route of transmission from the mother or from medical personnel is indicated. Also, contamination from environmental objects is possible. After all, they can live on golden staphylococcus for up to 50 days. To get rid of it it is possible only by means of processing surfaces by disinfectants.
Treatment with antibacterial agents
Doctors' views on how to treat staphylococcus often differ. Some talk about the need for prolonged use of antibacterial drugs, others require completely to abandon this group of drugs and just restore the microflora.
In most cases, with the rapid progression of the disease and the presence of high temperature immediately prescribe antibiotics. In this case, most doctors do not wait for the results of bakposev, so they do not know if there is golden Staphylococcus in the intestines of the baby. Symptoms of the disease suggest that it can be caused by uncontrolled reproduction of pathogenic microflora, which must be stopped.
Selection of antibacterial agents
Many strains of this microorganism are resistant to antibiotics of the group of penicillins and cephalosporins. In an ideal situation, it is necessary to prescribe the drug only after receiving the results of tests, in which it will be indicated to which agents the detected microorganisms are sensitive.
Statistics show that in almost 70% of cases glycopeptides and carbapenems help if a staphylococcus aureus was found in the intestine of a child. The treatment consists of taking medications such as Vancomycin, Imapinem, Meronem.
If the causative agent is unknown, then, as a rule, cephalosporin agents of I and II generations are prescribed. To them, many strains show moderate sensitivity. Assign funds such as "Cefuroxime", "Cefamandol", "Cefazolin". To increase their effectiveness, they are used in combination with aminoglycosides. These are such drugs as "Neomycin", "Amikacin", "Izepamycin", "Streptomycin".
Not always the infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus, proceeds in the acute form demanding immediate intervention and purpose or appointment of antibacterial agents. It is often enough to treat the golden Staphylococcus in the intestine to restore normal microflora.
For these purposes, special bacteriophages and antiseptic agents (preparations "Ersefuril", "Enterofuril") can be used. In addition, therapy should be aimed at colonization of the intestinal tract with bifido- and lactobacilli. They will suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora and restore the balance naturally.
If a staphylococcus aureus was found in the intestine of a child during the examination, antibiotics are in most cases not needed. In the absence of temperature and pronounced symptoms of infection, it will be enough to undergo a course of conservative treatment. It consists in taking a special staphylococcal bacteriophage. Sorbents are also appointed in conjunction with it, for example, Enterosgel. Prebiotics and probiotics are used to settle a useful microflora and accelerate its growth.
Features of bacteriophage use
Regardless of the age of the patient, Staphylococcus aureus can begin to multiply actively in the intestine. It will "kill" all useful microflora, release toxins, causing symptoms of poisoning. Even if a staphylococcus aureus was found in the intestine of a baby, it can be prescribed a staphylococcal bacteriophage. In these cases, it is recommended to use a solution form. If adults can drink it and so, then the baby is recommended to dilute the drug with boiled water. With good tolerability, you can give it in pure form.
To ease the condition caused by the fact that the golden Staphylococcus in the intestine began to actively multiply in the child, the treatment should last 3-4 days. But the full course lasts up to 15 days. The exact time should be determined by the doctor, given the scale of infection and the condition of the patient. In some cases, after the end of the course of therapy, relapses occur. In this case, the treatment is repeated.
It is worth knowing that about 30% of people peacefully get along with golden Staphylococcus aureus. They do not have any manifestations of the disease, in most cases they may not even know about the presence of this microorganism. Of course, with a significant weakening of immunity, Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine can begin to multiply and release toxins.
But if as a result of the survey this microorganism was detected, do not start to panic. Treatment with antibacterial or some other means is often not required. Of course, the doctor can recommend a course of therapy with bacteriophages. Also, he can prescribe drugs related to prebiotic and probiotic groups. It can be such means as "Prelax", "Lactofiltrum", "Linex", "Lactofil", "Probifor".
But in most cases, it's enough just to monitor the diet and improve immunity.