Staphylococci are part of the normal intestinal microflora. At 25% it consists of coccal microorganisms. The appearance of Staphylococcus aureus in humans is often associated with nosocomial infections, but there are other ways of infection.
Start of problems
It should be understood that all babies are born with sterile intestines. When it is first applied to the breast, lactobacilli begin to colonize. But, in addition to them, other microorganisms also enter the intestines, creating conditionally pathogenic microflora.
Do not panic if Staphylococcus aureus was discovered in the intestines. It is part of the normal microflora, of course, provided that positive bacteria can inhibit its growth. When evaluating the results of the analysis, it is important to pay attention to the concentration in which it is located. Level 10 3 is considered normal. Although ideally there should not be any in the intestine of this coccal microorganism. But it must be understood that in most cases the problem is not that there is too much Staphylococcus aureus, but that beneficial microorganisms cannot contain its growth.
Symptoms of the disease
Most often, problems begin with a decrease in immunity. This condition contributes to the fact that Staphylococcus aureus begins to multiply in the intestine. Symptoms of the disease in most cases pronounced.
The patient begins loose stools (frequency - more than 8 times a day). The stools are abundant, watery, and may be mixed with blood and mucus. Children and adults often have diaper rash that is difficult to treat. Sometimes the disease begins suddenly. With a relatively low temperature, abdominal pain occurs, accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting.
These problems begin because Staphylococcus aureus secretes toxins. Symptoms of infection are similar to severe food poisoning. Ignore the disease can not, because in advanced cases, the infection can cause death.
An exact diagnosis can be made using a special analysis. In the laboratory, make stool culture and determine the microflora. And not always the cause of problems becomes Staphylococcus aureus. Other pathogens are also present in the intestines, which can also lead to the development of severe intestinal infections.
For example, if, as a result of a survey, it was found that the concentration of Staphylococcus aureus is 10 5. And Klebsiell - 10 9. Then with high probability we can assume that it was the last microorganism that caused problems. Each case should be evaluated by an infectious disease physician. That he can choose the optimal treatment.
Problems in infants
When evaluating laboratory tests, it must be remembered that there is nothing terrible if an adult has found Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine at a concentration not exceeding 10 3.
A little different is the case with young children. In the first year of life they should not have this microorganism. After a year, they see a quantitative indicator and determine the severity of the situation.
Naturally, one cannot ignore the situation when Staphylococcus aureus was discovered in the intestines of infants. Symptoms of the disease may be as follows: watery or slimy, pulpy stool, repeated up to 15 times a day, regurgitation, vomiting, abdominal distension. If there are such signs, a baby must be examined. When a pathogenic microorganism mentioned above is detected, the possibility of a fecal-oral route of transmission from the mother or from medical personnel is indicated. Infection from environmental objects is also possible. After all, they have Staphylococcus aureus can live up to 50 days. You can get rid of it only with the help of surface treatment with disinfectants.
Doctors' views on how to treat staphylococcus are often different. Some talk about the need for long-term use of antibacterial agents, others require you to completely abandon this group of drugs and simply restore the microflora.
In most cases, with the rapid progression of the disease and the presence of high temperature, antibiotics are immediately prescribed. At the same time, doctors most often do not wait for the results of bakposev, so they do not know whether there is Staphylococcus aureus in the intestines of infants. The symptoms of the disease suggest that it may be caused by the uncontrolled reproduction of pathogenic microflora, which must be stopped.
Selection of antibacterial agents
Many strains of this microorganism are resistant to the antibiotics of the penicillin group and cephalosporins. In an ideal situation, it is necessary to prescribe the drug only after receiving the results of the analyzes, which will indicate what particular agents the detected microorganisms are sensitive to.
Statistics show that in almost 70% of cases, glycopeptides and carbapenems help if Staphylococcus aureus was detected in the intestines of a child. Treatment consists of taking medications such as Vancomycin, Havin, Meronem.
If the pathogen is unknown, then, as a rule, cephalosporin drugs I and II generations are prescribed. To them, many strains revealed a moderate sensitivity. Prescribe such means as "Cefuroxime", "Cefamandole", "Cefazolin". To increase their effectiveness, they are used in combination with aminoglycosides. These are such drugs as "Neomycin", "Amikacin", "Izepamycin", "Streptomycin".
Not always, the infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus occurs in an acute form, requiring immediate intervention and prescription of antibacterial agents. Quite often, treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine is aimed at restoring normal microflora.
For these purposes, special bacteriophages and antiseptics can be used (drugs "Ersefuril", "Enterofuril"). In addition, therapy should be aimed at colonization of the intestine by bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. They will inhibit the growth of pathogenic microflora and restore the balance in a natural way.
If Staphylococcus aureus was detected in the intestines of a child during the examination, then antibiotics are not needed in most cases. In the absence of temperature and pronounced symptoms of infection, it will be sufficient to undergo a course of conservative treatment. It consists in the admission of a special staphylococcal bacteriophage. Also in combination with it are assigned sorbents, for example, Enterosgel. Prebiotics and probiotics are used to colonize beneficial microflora and accelerate its growth.
Features of the use of bacteriophage
Regardless of the age of the patient, Staphylococcus aureus can actively proliferate in the intestines. It will "kill" all the useful microflora, release toxins, causing symptoms of poisoning. Even if Staphylococcus aureus was found in the intestines of a baby, it can be given a Staphylococcal bacteriophage. In these cases, it is recommended to use a solution form. If adults can drink it this way, then babies are advised to dilute the drug with boiled water. With good portability, you can give it in its pure form.
To relieve the condition caused by the fact that Staphylococcus aureus has begun to multiply actively in the intestines of a child, the treatment should last for 3-4 days. But the full course lasts up to 15 days. The exact time should be determined by the doctor, taking into account the scale of infection and the patient's condition. In some cases, after the end of the course of therapy, relapses occur. In this case, the treatment is repeated.
It is worth knowing that about 30% of people get along peacefully with Staphylococcus aureus. They do not have any manifestations of the disease, in most cases they may not even be aware of the presence of this microorganism. Of course, with a significant weakening of the immune system, Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine can begin to multiply and release toxins.
But if as a result of the survey this microorganism was identified, you should not start to panic. Treatment with antibacterial or any other means is often not required. Of course, the doctor may recommend to undergo a course of bacteriophage therapy. He can also prescribe drugs belonging to the groups of prebiotics and probiotics. It can be such means as Prelaks, Laktofiltrum, Linex, Lactofil, Probifor.
But in most cases, simply follow the diet and strengthen the immune system.