Staphylococci are part of normal intestinal flora. 25 % of it consists of coccal microorganisms. The appearance of Staphylococcus aureus in humans is often associated with nosocomial infections, but there are other ways of infection.
The beginning of the problems
It should be understood that all babies are born with sterile intestines. The first attachment to the breast it begins to colonize bacteria. But, in addition, in the intestines fall and other microorganisms, creating a pathogenic microflora.
Do not panic, if was discovered Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine. He is part of the normal microflora, of course, provided that the beneficial bacteria can inhibit its growth. When assessing the results of the analysis it is important to pay attention to what kind of concentration he is there. Normal it is considered level 10 3. While ideally in the gut of this coccal microorganism should not be. But we must understand that in most cases the problem is not that too many Staphylococcus aureus, and that beneficial microorganisms can not restrain its growth.
Most often the problem starts with a decrease in immunity. This condition contributes to the fact that actively begins to multiply Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine. Symptoms in most cases pronounced.
The patient begins to have loose stools (frequency more than 8 times a day). Bowel movements while profuse, watery, can be mixed with blood and mucus. Children and adults often appear diaper rash, which is difficult to treat. Sometimes the disease begins suddenly. At a relatively low temperature, pain in the abdomen, accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting.
These problems arise due to the fact that Staphylococcus aureus produces toxins. The symptoms of infection is similar to severe food poisoning. To ignore the disease, as in severe cases, the infection can cause death.
The necessary research
To establish an accurate diagnosis by using special analysis. In the lab doing stool cultures and determine the microflora. Not always cause problems, it is Staphylococcus aureus. In the intestine there are other pathogens that can also cause severe intestinal infection.
For example, if the result of examination, it was found that the concentration of Staphylococcus aureus is 10 5. and Klebsiella – 9 10. then with high probability we can assume that the latter microorganism was the cause of the problem. Each case should be evaluated by a physician-infectious disease. It can determine the optimal treatment.
Problems in infants
In the evaluation of laboratory researches it is necessary to remember that there is nothing wrong if an adult were identified Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine in a concentration not exceeding 10 3 .
Slightly different is the case with young children. In the first year of life they have this microorganism should not be. After a year of watching a quantitative value and have it determine the seriousness of the situation.
Of course, you cannot ignore the situation when it was discovered Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine of infants. The symptoms of the disease may be the following: watery or slimy mushy stool, repeated up to 15 times per day, regurgitation, vomiting, bloating. If any such indication necessarily of a survey of baby. Upon detection of the above mentioned pathogen say the possibility of fecal-oral transmission of infection from mother or from medical personnel. It is also possible infection from the objects of the environment. After all, they Staphylococcus aureus can live up to 50 days. To get rid of it is possible only by means of surface treatment with disinfectants.
Treatment with antibacterial agents
Doctors views on how to treat a staph infection, are often different. Some speak of the need for prolonged use of antibiotics, while others require you to completely abandon this group of drugs and just restore microflora.
In most cases with the rapid progression of the disease and the presence of high temperature immediately prescribe antibiotics. While most doctors wait for results of cultures, so they don't know whether Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine of infants. The symptoms of the disease suggest the possibility that it may be caused by the uncontrolled growth of pathogenic microflora, which must be stopped.
Selection of antibacterial agents
Many strains of this microorganism resistant to antibiotics of group of penicillin and cephalosporin. In an ideal situation to prescribe the drug is required only after receipt of test results, which will indicate what sensitive means discovered microorganisms.
Statistics show that almost 70% of cases help glycopeptides and carbapenems, if was discovered Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine of a child. Treatment involves taking such drugs as "Vancomycin", "Imipenem", "Meronem".
If the pathogen is unknown, then usually prescribe cephalosporin funds I and II generations. They have many strains revealed a moderate sensitivity. Prescribed tools such as "Cefuroxime", "Cefamandole", "Cefazolin". To improve the efficiency of their use in combination with aminoglycosides. It is drugs such as "Neomycin", "Amikacin", "Isepamicin", "Streptomycin".
Not always an infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus, occurs in an acute form requiring immediate action and the appointment of antibacterial agents. Quite often, the treatment for Staphylococcus aureus in the gut aimed at restoring the normal microflora.
For these purposes you can use special bacteriophages and antiseptic (drugs "Ercefuryl", "Enterofuril"). In addition, the therapy must be directed at the colonization of intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. They will suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora and restore balance naturally.
If was discovered Staphylococcus aureus in the intestines of the child during the examination, antibiotics are in most cases not needed. In the absence of temperature and pronounced symptoms of the infection will be enough to take a course of conservative treatment. He is receiving special staphylococcal bacteriophage. Also in the complex with him are appointed sorbents, for example, "Enterosgel". For the settlement of beneficial microflora and accelerate its growth using prebiotics and probiotics.
Features of the use of bacteriophage
Regardless of the age of the patient, the intestines can begin to actively proliferate Staphylococcus aureus. It will "kill" the entire microflora that excrete toxins, causing symptoms of poisoning. Even if was discovered Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine of infants, you can assign a staphylococcal bacteriophage. In these cases, it is recommended to use the form of the solution. If adults can drink and so, kids, the drug is recommended to dilute with boiled water. With good endurance you can give it in pure form.
To alleviate the condition caused by the fact that he began to actively proliferate Staphylococcus aureus in the gut of the child, treatment should continue for 3-4 days. But a full course lasts up to 15 days. The exact period should be determined by the doctor, given the scale of the infection and the patient's condition. In some cases after the end of therapy relapse. In this case, repeat the treatment.
Carriers of the disease
You should know that about 30% of people coexisting with Staphylococcus aureus. They have no manifestations of the disease, in most cases they may not even know about the presence of this microorganism. Of course, with a significant weakening of the immune system Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine can start to multiply and release toxins.
But if the survey had identified the microorganism, you should not start to panic. Treatment with antibacterial or any other means is often not required. Of course, the doctor may recommend therapy with bacteriophages. He can also prescribe drugs belonging to the group of prebiotics and probiotics. It can be such as "Relax", "Lactofiltrum", "Linex", "Lactogel", "Probifor".
But in most cases simply to follow the diet and strengthen immunity.