What is journalism? This concept combines the activities of people who collect interesting and truthful information, and then, after processing, they present it to a wide range of people. The information obtained in the course of journalistic activities is conveyed to the masses via several communication channels, namely, through the press, television, radio, and more recently through the Internet. It is believed that this profession is one of the oldest on our planet. There is also an opinion that journalism is not just a specialty, but a style and a vocation.
Who are the journalists?
People who are engaged in journalistic activities are called journalists, correspondents, analysts, commentators, etc. And they are all taken together in society as the “fourth estate”. And all because they not only present this or that information to the broad masses, but also contribute to the formation of public opinion on a particular issue. In addition, journalists, especially television reporters, are people who often come into the limelight. Their opinions are often considered, and some are afraid, because journalists often learn about important incidents from the first hand. How this public response will depend on how they convey this information to their readers and listeners.
The genres of journalism: their classification and definition
You do not need to be a professional to understand that the information we receive through the media is diverse. This suggests that journalism has many genres, each of which has its own characteristics. Let's look at each of them. But before classifying the genres of journalism, it is useful to give their general definition.
A genre is a type of journalistic work that has developed in the course of history. There are a lot of these types. The main thing - to make out what their differences. Despite the fact that the genres of journalism are in many ways similar to literary ones, their main difference is the accuracy and targeting of facts. In the 1st c. BC, the great ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that literature is divided into genera depending on the way in which reality is reflected in them. The theory of journalism, observing the traditions of literature, is also aimed at studying the genera, types and genres of their works. The world around us is incredibly diverse, which is why journalism, the main purpose of which is to transmit information about all this diversity, must also be divided into several types.
According to one of the classifications, the genres of journalism are divided into informational, artistic, publicistic and analytical. Nevertheless, there are other types of classifications proposed by researchers such as Lev Kroychik, Semyon Gurevich and others. According to the first, journalism genres should be divided into operational news (all kinds of notes), research news (reviews, correspondence and commentaries), operational research (reports, reports, interviews), research-shaped (satires and essays), and just research (articles and letters). And according to Gurevich, journalistic genres are divided into news-informational, dialogical, epistolary, situational-analytical, satirical, and artistic-journalistic. As you can see, Gurevich's classification is closer to the main one, which is subdivided into 3 main genres. Consider each of them separately.
What is the basis of most journalistic works? Of course, a fact, that is, an already accomplished event. From a variety of facts compiled information. Information genres of journalism are aimed at displaying obvious facts about events that have occurred recently and have not yet had time to lose their freshness and relevance. These include chronicles, notes, sketches, different types of interviews (dialogue, monologue or questionnaire), reports, travel notes, reviews, reports, etc. The main method of transmitting information in this case is narration in the so-called “telegraph style”.
This type is based on the method of deduction and induction, that is, synthesis and analysis. When we analyze, we consider a particular problem only after we divide it into parts. This means that in this process we go from the general to the particular. But in the case of deduction or synthesis, we first study each of the possible parts of the problem separately, and then only in general terms. The analytical genres of journalism are wider and larger in their actual material. These include articles, reviews, reviews and correspondence.
Artistic and publicistic genre
Sports journalism is one of the promising areas of media
On this type, in view of its independence, I would like to dwell separately. Its main task is to collect, thoroughly process and transmit information about everything related to sports. Some people are not serious about this genre, but recently the news has been very solid and can affect the economy of the media. If you notice, more and more channels are broadcasting football matches, tennis tournaments, etc.
Features of modern journalism
Every day in this area there are many transformations that are dictated by the requirements of the world in which we live. Modern journalism has a huge impact on society. It has the following special features: