What is journalism? This concept combines the activities of people who collect interesting and truthful information, and then, after processing, present it to a wide range of people. Information received in the course of journalistic activity reaches the masses through several communication channels, namely through the press, television, radio, and more recently through the Internet. It is believed that this profession is one of the oldest on our planet. There is also an opinion that journalism is not just a specialty, but a style and a vocation.
Who are journalists?
People who are engaged in journalistic activities are called journalists, correspondents, analysts, commentators, etc. And they are all considered together in society as the "fourth power". And all because they not only present to the broad masses this or that information, but also contribute to the formation of public opinion on this or that issue. In addition, journalists, especially TV men, are people who often find themselves at the center of attention. Their opinion is often considered, and some are afraid, because journalists often learn about important incidents from the first mouth. On how they will convey this information to their readers and listeners, it depends on what public resonance will be.
Genres of journalism: their classification and definition
You do not need to be a professional to understand that the information we receive through the media is diverse. This suggests that journalism has many genres, each of which has its own characteristics. Let's look into each of them. But before classifying the genres of journalism, it will be superfluous to give their general definition.
Genre is the form of a journalistic work that developed during the course of history. There are a lot of these types. The main thing is to understand what their differences are. Despite the fact that the genres of journalism are largely similar to literary ones, their main difference is the reliability and targeting of facts. In the I c. BC, the great ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that literature is divided into births, depending on how they reflect real reality. The theory of journalism, observing the traditions of literature, is also aimed at studying the genera, types and genres of their works. The world around us is incredibly diverse, therefore, journalism, whose main purpose is to transmit information about all this diversity, must also be divided into several types.
According to one of the classifications, the genres of journalism are divided into information, artistic, journalistic and analytical. Nevertheless, there are other types of classifications, proposed by such researchers as Lev Kreuchik, Semyon Gurevich and others. According to the first, the genres of journalism should be divided into operational news (all kinds of notes), research news (reviews, correspondence and comments), operational research (reports, reports, interviews), research-figurative (satirical articles and essays), and just research (articles and letters). And according to Gurevich, journalistic genres are divided into news-information, dialogical, epistolary, situational-analytical, satirical and artistic-journalistic. As you can see, the classification of Gurevich is closer to the main one, which is subdivided into 3 main genres. Let's consider each of them separately.
What is the basis of most journalistic works? Of course, a fact, that is, an event that has already happened. From the set of facts, information is arranged. The information genres of journalism are aimed at displaying obvious facts about events that have occurred recently and have not yet lost their freshness and relevance. These include chronicles, notes, sketches, various types of interviews (dialogue, monologue or questionnaire), reports, travel notes, surveys, reports, etc. The main method of information transfer in this case is the narrative in the so-called "telegraph style".
This type is based on the method of deduction and induction, that is, synthesis and analysis. When we analyze, we consider this or that problem only after we dismember it. This means that in this process we go from general to particular. But in the case of deduction or synthesis, we first study each of the possible parts of the problem separately, and then only in general terms. Analytic genres of journalism are broader and larger in their actual material. These include articles, reviews, reviews and correspondence.
Artistic and publicistic genre
Sports journalism is one of the promising areas of the media
On this type, in view of its independence, I want to stop separately. Its main task is to collect, carefully process and transmit information about everything related to sport. Some are not serious about this genre, but recently these news are very solid and can affect the economy of the media. If you notice, more and more channels are engaged in the broadcast of football matches, tennis tournaments, etc.
Features of modern journalism
Every day in this sphere, many transformations take place, which are dictated by the demands of the world in which we live. Modern journalism has a huge impact on society. It has the following characteristic features: