There is no doubt that human health is one of the most current topics for conversation today. This is especially true of the younger generation, because the cultivation of a healthy lifestyle and a responsible attitude to your body begins in childhood. Some studies claim that about seventy-five percent of the disease is already laid in childhood. We will describe how health-saving technologies are applied in elementary school today in our article.
Health is a priority
Today, medical statistics show a sharp deterioration in the health of children. Every third first-grader has a disease or abnormality. Schooling should help maintain health, but instead the number of healthy children is four times less.
The most common problem is visual impairment. Statistics show that the number of children with myopia increases from first-graders to graduates from 3.9% to 12.3%. This trend simply obliges teachers to apply health-saving technologies in primary school, aimed at preventing visual impairment and preserving existing indicators. Children spend more and more time at the screens of computers and televisions, do not know the simplest rules of hygiene of vision, write and read in the wrong light - all this leads to disruption of the eyes. The task of the teacher and parents is to teach them to take care of their vision.
The second problem noted in the data of the medical examination of children, called postural disorders. Their number increases by the end of schooling from 1.9% to 16.8%. Modern schoolchildren do not move much, the muscular apparatus does not develop, the muscles become flabby and barely hold the spine, the posture is bent. Prolonged sitting at a desk aggravates the situation. The use of health-saving technologies in primary school allows us to conduct the lesson in such a way as to reduce fatigue and static stress.
Another worrying indicator is the growth of neuropsychiatric disorders. They are noted in 5.6% of first-graders and increase to 16.4% among graduates. It is important for teachers to organize training in such a way as to preserve the physical and mental health of children. The use of health-saving technologies will help solve this major task. In elementary school, this is especially important, since children are actively developing all body systems.
Healthy student - successful student
Only a healthy person can master the knowledge and assimilate new material. Any painful condition reduces the effectiveness of training. For all participants in the educational process, the preservation of physical and mental health should be the most important condition for obtaining new knowledge.
The teacher needs to teach the child to preserve and strengthen their health, to instill the skills of safe behavior, to prevent excessive psychological and physical stress on the children's body.
Create conditions for healthy learning
Consider what is necessary for the implementation of health-saving technologies in primary school.
- The educational process should take place in comfortable conditions that prevent stress, be built on the basis of adequate requirements, corresponding to the age features of the methods and methods of training and education.
- Training should be rationally organized taking into account the age and sex of students, in accordance with hygienic requirements.
- The teacher should be able to take into account the individual characteristics of the child.
- To prevent fatigue, all types of training and physical activity should be correlated with the age possibilities of the child.
- The school should provide the child with the opportunity to move. The alternation of static voltage from sitting at a desk and rationally organized mobile activity.
The implementation of health-saving technologies in primary school has one main goal - the preservation and strengthening of children's health.
Health Conservation Issues in Federal Documents
The relevance of the topic we are examining is also noted in state laws that regulate educational activity today. First of all, this is the law “On Education of the Russian Federation” 273-FZ, which notes that it includes the protection of students' health, the conditions that the educational organization should create in its activities, as well as the conditions for the education of children with disabilities and students who need long-term treatment .
Health-saving technologies in a modern primary school are defined as a system of measures to strengthen and preserve the health of children, which takes into account the most important characteristics of the educational environment and the living conditions of a child, affecting their health.
The importance of their application was noted in the second document, on which the modern education system is based - in the federal state educational standard. It takes into account the educational needs of all students, including children with disabilities. For the teacher, the reference point in the activity is the so-called “portrait of the elementary school graduate”, in which, among other personal characteristics, it is noted that this is a person who “follows the rules of a healthy and safe life for himself and those around him”. In order to form this quality in children, health-saving technologies are applied in elementary school. According to GEF, awareness of health as a value and instilling the skills of caring for it is one of the leading attitudes.
Physical education - important lesson
The content of the initial ideas, the formation of skills and abilities related to a healthy lifestyle, is distributed in different educational areas, but the most important role is played by the lessons of physical culture. This subject teaches children to organize the daily routine, perform morning exercises, conduct recreational activities, outdoor games, as well as monitor their condition, monitor physical activity.
The teacher who teaches physical education forms among schoolchildren an idea of the role that motor activity and sports play in maintaining and strengthening physical, social, and psychological health. Implementing health-saving technologies in primary school, the teacher lays the foundation for a healthy lifestyle.
Getting acquainted with sports and outdoor games, children begin to realize that this not only develops them physically, but also causes an emotional response, and in addition, the team game contributes to successful socialization.
The teacher can do more than the doctor
Decrease in children's fatigue at lessons is noted by all teachers applying health saving technologies in elementary school. According to the Federal State Educational Standard, the formation of the skills of a healthy and safe lifestyle among younger schoolchildren is one of the most important requirements for the results of mastering the basic educational program by students.
If the teacher in his work takes into account all aspects relating to the preservation of health, it is noted that children have a high level of motivation to learn and have a good performance in mastering the program.
Traditionally it is believed that the doctor should deal with health. However, if the teacher can organize training in such a way as to preserve and strengthen the condition of the child, he will not need a doctor.
There are several conditions that allow the use of health-saving technologies in primary school lessons:
- The relevance of educational material age features of cognitive activity.
- The implementation of training at the most optimal level of complexity.
- The use of a variety of methods and forms of training.
- Rational alternation of motor and static loads.
- The implementation of individual and differentiated approach, the opportunity for children to work independently and in small groups.
- Reasonable use of visibility.
- The use of various forms of presenting information, including modern information and communication technologies.
- Creating a comfortable atmosphere in the classroom for each student.
- Stimulate positive motivation to learn.
- Development in children of skills, abilities and basic knowledge on the issues of health preservation.
The concept of "health-saving technologies" in elementary school can be applied to any of the educational technologies used by the teacher, if the process of solving the problem of preserving and promoting the health of the teacher and students. In this case, the following principles should be observed, outlined by N. K. Smirnov:
- “Do no harm!” - each method, method or tool that is used in the lesson should not harm the health of children, so you should use only reasonable, proven in practice elements of the work.
- The priority of taking care of the student's health - every moment of the lesson should be analyzed from the standpoint of the impact on the psycho-physiological state of the students.
- Continuity and continuity - this indicator says that health-saving educational technologies in elementary school are used regularly, daily and at every lesson.
- A child is a subject of applied technologies and their direct participant.
- Accounting for age characteristics in the selection of learning content. All materials and their volume should be feasible and accessible to the child.
- Teachers, psychologists and doctors should act together as a single mechanism of influence on the development of the child.
- Creating a situation of success is very important for the development of a child’s psychological health. Any result obtained by the child is evaluated first with an emphasis on the positive, after which errors or problems are noted.
- The alternation of active activities prevents fatigue.
- Formation of responsibility for their health in each child is the most important task of the teacher.
Various types of health-saving technologies in primary school can be combined into three blocks:
- hygiene requirements;
- organizing rational physical activity;
- other psychological and pedagogical technologies.
The first block: we provide hygienically optimal conditions
Much depends on how the educational process is organized. If the load and types of activities are rationally distributed, then children have a fairly high level of mental performance. But besides this, hygiene conditions are of great importance. We present the main criteria that must meet the lessons on health-saving technologies in primary school.
In the first place in the classroom should be a comfortable temperature, the air should be fresh. The study room must be equipped with a sufficient level of lighting. All these requirements are contained in the norms of SanPiN.
Secondly, children should sit comfortably, maintaining the correct posture, and periodically change the position, relieving static stress. For this, teachers usually use physical exercises, finger, respiratory, articular and eye exercises, as well as elements of self-massage. Such wellness moments, regularly included in the lesson, give a good effect.
Thirdly, in the lesson you need to use several activities. For example, it is worth alternating a survey, solving examples, working with handouts, and so on. The fatigability of schoolchildren is influenced by the duration of classes of one type of activity and the frequency of their turnover. There should not be a long monotonous work, but flickering one after another exercise with a very frequent change of exercise can tire a child, therefore it is recommended to find the optimal combination.
The teacher should clearly notice the moment in which the fatigue of children begins and the learning activity decreases, and immediately take measures to change the type of activity.
Fourth, children in a lesson can gain knowledge in a variety of ways. For example, it can be not only the teacher’s verbal story or the viewing of visual materials (including the use of audio and video viewing), but also independent work. In addition, it is necessary to include practical methods in the lesson. From the alternation of these elements also depends on the preservation of the health of students. A separate point is the use of technical training tools. They should be applied in accordance with the duration and frequency specified in the sanitary requirements. The teacher, selecting the material for listening or watching, thinks over his purpose and further work. For example, watching a training film may cause discussion of the content, reflections on a given topic, questions to the children and to the teacher from the students.
Fifthly, the psychological climate is very important for maintaining working capacity. The lesson with health-saving technologies in elementary school is characterized by a comfortable atmosphere, goodwill in the relationship between teachers and students, focus on cooperation. As well as activity and interest in communication and joint activities with classmates. Smile and humor help the teacher well in this. The inclusion in the lesson of a small joke, sayings, funny illustrations or musical moments allows you to quickly and easily relieve stress from tedious monotonous activities, performing the role of emotional relaxation.
The second block: organize training and physical activity
Modern studies in the field of pedagogy and psychology point out four important points in constructing a lesson that includes health-saving technologies in elementary school.
The first moment: interesting - it means tirelessly!
By developing pupils' communicative skills, interest in new knowledge, cognitive motivation and the ability not only to answer questions, but also to ask them, the teacher prevents children from fatigue from the educational process.
The second moment: I see, I hear, I try!
Each person has individual features of perception. It depends on the functional asymmetry of the brain, in which there is a distribution of all mental functions between the two hemispheres.
Children, who mostly work in the left hemisphere, are distinguished by the verbal and logical embodiment of cognitive processes, such students easily perceive abstract concepts, they easily draw generalizations and conclusions.
Schoolchildren with the dominance of the right hemisphere use concrete-figurative thinking more often, often include imagination, invent, compose, easily cope with creative tasks.
There is a third type of schoolchildren, who do not have any one distinct characteristic feature, their hemispheres working in equal shares.
In addition to these features, in children also the channels of perception of information are different: auditory, visual, kinesthetic.
The teacher should know the characteristics of the students and use different options for the presentation of the material in order to facilitate learning for all children.
The third moment: consideration of the health zone.
In human activity, there are regular peaks and dips, forming a special rhythm. Such alternation has its own characteristics both during one day and on different days of the school week. Considering these features, a schedule is drawn up, at which difficult lessons are not put at the end.
The fourth moment: the distribution of intensity of mental load.
The teacher in the process of learning tries to reduce fatigue, maintains optimal performance of students, monitors its change during the lesson and thus contributes to health conservation.
The third block: psychological and pedagogical technologies of health saving
Consider what helps the teacher to maintain performance.
Use in the lesson of elements that relieve emotional stress:
Creating a favorable psychological climate in the classroom:
- friendly communication style;
- exciting conversation;
- interest in every opinion;
- tactful remark and calm reaction to mistakes;
- stimulation of self-activity;
- subtle humor.
Health protection and promotion of a healthy lifestyle.
If a child from school years learns how to be responsible for the state of his body, he will lead a healthy lifestyle in later life.
Application of student-centered approach.
The task of the school is to preserve and strengthen health.
Summarizing all the above, we note once again that the school is able to take care of the health of children. Advanced teachers have long used a variety of elements that reduce the incidence in their work. Young and novice teachers should include this question in their self-education. Primary school health-saving technologies are a powerful system that will help preserve children's health.