There is no doubt that human health is one of the most urgent topics for discussion today. This especially applies to the younger generation, because the education of a healthy lifestyle and responsible attitude to your body begins with the very childhood. Some studies claim that about seventy-five percent of the diseases are laid already in childhood. About how today health-saving technologies are applied in elementary school, we will tell in our article.
Health is a priority
To date, medical statistics show a sharp deterioration in the health of children. Every third grader has a disease or a deviation. Schooling should contribute to the preservation of health, but instead the number of healthy children is reduced by four times.
The most common problem is visual impairment. Statistics show that the number of children with myopia increases from first-graders to graduates from 3.9% to 12.3%. This tendency simply obliges the teacher to apply health-saving technologies in primary school aimed at preventing visual impairments and preserving the available indicators. Children spend more and more time at the screens of computers and televisions, they do not know the simplest rules of hygiene of vision, they write and read in case of incorrect illumination - all this leads to disturbances in the eyes. The task of the teacher and parents is to teach them to take care of their vision.
The second problem, noted in the data of medical examination of children, is the violation of posture. Their number increases by the end of schooling from 1.9% to 16.8%. Modern schoolchildren move little, this does not develop a muscular apparatus, muscles become flabby and hardly hold the spine, the posture is bent. Long sitting at the desk aggravates the situation. The use of health-saving technologies in primary school allows you to lead a lesson in such a way as to reduce fatigue and static load.
Another disturbing indicator is the growth of neuropsychic disorders. They are noted in 5.6% of first-graders and increase to 16.4% among graduates. It is important for educators to organize instruction in such a way as to preserve the physical and mental health of children. This important task will help to solve the application of health-saving technologies. In primary school, this is especially important, as children are actively developing all the systems of the body.
A healthy student is a successful student
Only a healthy person is able to master and acquire new material. Any painful condition reduces the effectiveness of training. For all participants of the educational process, the preservation of physical and mental health should be an essential condition for obtaining new knowledge.
The teacher needs to teach the child to maintain and strengthen his health, to instill skills of safe behavior, to prevent unnecessary psychological and physical stress on the child's body.
Create conditions for healthy learning
Consider what is necessary to implement health-saving technologies in primary school.
- The educational process must take place in comfortable conditions that prevent stress, be built on the basis of adequate requirements that correspond to the age-specific characteristics of the methods and methods of instruction and upbringing.
- Training should be rationally organized taking into account the age and gender of students, in accordance with hygiene requirements.
- The teacher should be able to take into account the individual characteristics of the child.
- To prevent fatigue, all types of educational and physical activity should be related to the child's age abilities.
- The school must provide the child with the opportunity to move. Alternating static tension from sitting at a desk and rationally organized mobile activity.
The implementation of health-saving technologies in primary school has one main goal - the preservation and strengthening of children's health.
Health issues in federal documents
The relevance of the topic we are considering is also noted in state laws that regulate today educational activity. First of all, this is the law "On the Education of the Russian Federation" 273-FZ, which notes that it includes the protection of the health of students, what conditions an educational organization should create in its activity, as well as the conditions for the education of disabled children and students who need long-term treatment .
Health-saving technologies in modern primary school are defined as a system of measures to strengthen and preserve children's health, which takes into account the main characteristics of the educational environment and the child's living conditions that affect health.
The importance of their application was also noted in the second document, which is based on the modern education system - in the federal state educational standard. It takes into account the educational needs of all students, including children with disabilities. For the teacher, the so-called "portrait of a graduate of an elementary school" is a reference point in activity, in which, among other personal characteristics, it is noted that this person is "fulfilling the rules of a healthy and safe lifestyle and surrounding life". In order to form this quality in children, and apply health-saving technologies in primary school. According to the GEF, awareness of health as a value and instilling skills of a caring attitude toward it is one of the leading attitudes.
Physical education is an important lesson
The content of initial ideas, the formation of skills and skills related to healthy lifestyles, is distributed across different educational areas, but the most important role is played by physical education lessons. This subject teaches children to organize the regime of the day, perform morning exercise, conduct recreational activities, outdoor games, as well as monitor their condition, monitor physical activity.
The teacher, who teaches physical culture, shapes the pupils' idea of what role motor activity and sports play in order to preserve and strengthen physical, social and psychological health. Realizing health-saving technologies in primary school, the teacher lays the foundations for a healthy lifestyle.
Getting acquainted with sports and mobile games, children begin to realize that this not only develops them physically, but also evokes emotional response, and in addition, team play contributes to successful socialization.
A teacher can do more than a doctor
Reducing child fatigue in the classroom is noted by all teachers who use health-saving technologies in primary school. According to the GEF NEO, the formation of skills of healthy and safe lifestyles among junior schoolchildren is one of the most important requirements for the results of mastering the basic educational program for students.
If the teacher in his work takes into account all the points concerning the preservation of health, it is noted that the children retain a high level of motivation for learning and there is good performance in the development of the program.
Traditionally it is considered that the doctor should be engaged in health. However, if the teacher can organize training in such a way as to preserve and strengthen the child's condition, then the doctor will not need it.
There are several conditions that allow the use of health-saving technologies in primary school:
- Correspondence of the teaching material to the age-specific features of cognitive activity.
- Implementation of training at the most optimal level of complexity.
- Using a variety of methods and forms of learning.
- Rational alternation of motor and static loads.
- Implementation of an individual and differentiated approach, an opportunity for children to work independently and in small groups.
- Reasonable use of clarity.
- Use of various forms of information delivery, including modern information and communication technologies.
- Creation of comfortable favorable atmosphere in the classroom for each student.
- Stimulating positive motivation for learning.
- Development of children's skills, skills and knowledge on health preservation.
The concept of "health-saving technologies" in an elementary school can be attributed to any of the educational technologies used by the teacher, if the task of preserving and strengthening the health of the teacher and students is being accomplished in the process. At the same time, the following principles, singled out by NK Smirnov, should be observed:
- "Do no harm!" - every reception, method or tool that is used in the lesson should not harm the health of children, therefore it is worthwhile to use only sound, proven elements of the work.
- Priority of care for the health of the student - every moment of the lesson should be analyzed from the position of influence on the psychophysiological state of schoolchildren.
- Continuity and continuity - this indicator indicates that health-saving educational technologies in primary school are applied regularly, daily and in every lesson.
- The child is the subject of applied technologies and their direct participant.
- Accounting for age characteristics in the selection of training content. All materials and their volume should be feasible and accessible to the child.
- Teachers, psychologists and doctors should act together as a single mechanism for influencing the child's development.
- Creating a situation of success is very important for the development of the child's psychological health. Any result obtained by the child is evaluated first with an emphasis on the positive, after which errors or problems are noted.
- The alternation of active activities prevents fatigue.
- Formation of responsibility for one's health in each child is the most important task of the teacher.
Various types of health-saving technologies in primary school can be combined into three blocks:
- aimed at meeting hygiene requirements;
- organizing rational physical activity;
- other psycho-pedagogical technologies.
The first block: we provide hygienically optimal conditions
Many things depend on how the educational process is organized. If the workload and activities are distributed rationally, the children have enough mental capacity for a sufficiently long time. But besides this, it is very important to observe hygienic conditions. Here are the main criteria that must be met by the lessons on health-saving technologies in primary school.
First of all, the class should have a comfortable temperature, the air must be fresh. The study room must be equipped with a sufficient level of illumination. All these requirements are contained in the norms of SanPiN.
Secondly, children should sit comfortably, maintaining a correct posture, and periodically change their posture, removing static tension. To do this, teachers usually use fizminutki, finger, respiratory, joint and eye gymnastics, as well as elements of self-massage. Such healing moments, regularly included in the lesson, give a good effect.
Thirdly, in the lesson you need to use several types of activities. For example, it is necessary to alternate the survey, the decision of examples, work with handouts and so on. The fatigue of schoolchildren is affected by the duration of one type of activity and the frequency of their changeability. There should not be a long monotonous work, but also the flickering of one after the other exercises with a very frequent change of exercises can tire a child, so it is recommended to find the optimal combination.
The teacher should clearly notice the moment in which the fatigue of children begins and the learning activity decreases, and immediately take measures to change the type of activity.
Fourthly, children in the class can receive knowledge through various methods. For example, it can be not only a verbal story of the teacher or the examination of visual materials (including the use of audio and video), but also independent work. In addition, it is necessary to include practical methods in the lesson. From the alternation of the listed elements, the preservation of the working capacity of schoolchildren also depends. A separate point is the use of technical means of instruction. They should be applied in accordance with the specified in the sanitary requirements for the duration and periodicity. Teacher, choosing the material for listening or viewing, thinks over both its purpose and further work. For example, watching a training film can trigger discussion of content, reflections on a given topic, questions to children and to the teacher from the students.
Fifth, the psychological climate is very important for maintaining the working capacity. A lesson with health-saving technologies in an elementary school is characterized by a comfortable atmosphere, goodwill in the relationship between the teacher and students, the focus on cooperation. And also by the activity and interest in communication and joint activities with classmates. A smile and humor are good in this teacher. Inclusion in the lesson of a little joke, sayings, funny illustrations or musical minutes allows you to quickly and easily relieve tension from exhausting monotonous activity, performing the role of emotional relaxation.
Second unit: organize training and physical activity
Modern studies in the field of pedagogy and psychology point out four important points in constructing a lesson, including health-saving technologies in primary school.
The first moment: interesting - it means tireless!
Forming communicative skills, interest in new knowledge, cognitive motivation and ability not only to answer questions, but also to ask them, the teacher prevents the children from fatigue from the educational process.
The second moment: I see, I hear, I try!
Each person has individual characteristics of perception. This depends on the functional asymmetry of the brain, in which all mental functions are distributed between the two hemispheres.
Children, who mainly work the left hemisphere, are distinguished by the verbal-logical embodiment of cognitive processes, such students easily perceive abstract concepts, easily make generalizations and conclusions.
Students with dominance of the right hemisphere are more likely to use concrete imagery, they often include imagination, invent, compose, easily cope with creative tasks.
There is also a third type of schoolchildren who do not have any one clearly pronounced characteristic feature, their hemispheres work in equal parts.
In addition to these features, the channels of information perception differ in children: auditory, visual, kinesthetic.
The teacher should know the trainees' characteristics and use different ways of submitting the material in order to facilitate learning for all children.
The moment the third: the account of a zone of working capacity.
In human activity, there are regular peaks and recessions, which form a special rhythm. This alternation has its own characteristics and for one day, and on different days of the school week. Given these features, a timetable is drawn up, in which difficult lessons are not put at the end.
Momentum 4: distribution of intensity of mental load.
The teacher in the learning process tries to reduce fatigue, maintains optimal performance of students, monitors its change during the lesson and thereby contributes to health saving.
The third block: psycho-pedagogical technologies of health preservation
Consider what helps the teacher to maintain efficiency.
The use of elements that relieve emotional stress in the lesson:
Creating a favorable psychological climate in the classroom:
- friendly style of communication;
- fascinating conversation;
- interest in each opinion;
- tactful observation and calm reaction to mistakes;
- stimulation to independent activity;
- subtle humor.
Health protection and promotion of a healthy lifestyle.
If a child learns from the school years as a norm responsible attitude to the state of his body, in later life he will lead a healthy lifestyle.
Application of the personality-oriented approach.
The goal of the school is to preserve and strengthen health
Summarizing all the above, once again note that the school is able to take care of children's health. Advanced teachers have long used a variety of elements that reduce morbidity in their work. Young and beginning teachers should include this question in their self-education. Health-saving technologies in primary school are a powerful system that will help preserve child health.