The auxiliary verbs in the English language (‘auxiliaries’) is used for the formation of temporal and aspectual forms. Also with them are composed of the structure the passive voice, question and negation. In fact, almost all semantic manipulations feasible with the use of these words. Since English is an analytical language, and analytical languages has quite a bit of morphemes for the same parts of speech – verbs can its modifications to fully reflect all the subtleties of speech. Therefore, the reflection function of time, aspect and position of the verb in the syntactic pattern of the sentence assume that is the auxiliary verbs. If we turn to theology, it is hence comes their name. Thus, auxiliary and notional verbs in English share functions. In particular, the verbs have the following forms.
Basic forms, Present Indefinite
1. The basic form, or as it is sometimes called the infinitive without ‘to’. Used for the formation of most structures. In pure form it is used nowadays. an indefinite time, and is given in the notes and the abbreviations and are shown in the table of irregular verbs in the first column as a starting point. It's easier to talk about it as a base form, than to permanently associate with the infinitive, mentioning that it is used without ‘to’, but in fact the infinitive to add a particle. Directly in the original English sources are also found in various symbol that is not strictly regulated and is allowed and the use.
2. ‘-s’-form, which is obtained by adding‘ -s ’to the base form, to indicate the 3rd person, unit. numbers
3. The infinitive, or as it is called differently, the infinitive with the particle ‘to’. Has various fields of use, in other designs it appears only a simple form, and temporarily-phase variations tied to particular situations. Has the same form as the base form, but always put before ‘to’. In dictionaries, textbooks, articles, and comparing with the foreign word verbs are usually given in the infinitive form.
Past Indefinite Form
4. The Past Indefinite. This refers to the active voice because the passive verb is formed by different rules. This form looks like a basic verb with the addition of the ending ‘ed’. Not all verbs can maintain a constant body word when you attach a suffix. It just proves they nesusvetnye to this end. In this case, they are transformirovalsya, but usually fairly predictable. Irregular verbs form this form otherwise, it is necessary to remember, or, if necessary, to consult the table of irregular verbs. The most common verbs around 80-100 pieces. The most used are just auxiliary verbs. In total, the same irregular verbs, if we take into account all outdated and rarely used forms, make a list of the more than 200 positions.
5. The present participle (‘participle I’ or ‘present participle’). Is prepared by adding to the base form of the ending ‘ing’. He also has an independent use of the. But its simple form is actively involved in the formation of verb structures.
6. The sacrament of the last. time (‘participle II’ or ‘past participle’). Regular verbs form its simple substitution of the suffix ‘ed’, that is, for them, this morpheme is identical to the last. indefinite period of time. Irregular verbs have a special form, which can also teach or look in the table of irregular verbs in the third column. Used for the formation of temporary constructions and the passive voice.
7. Gerunds, looks the same as chen. present time, and has specific cases of use. It has some properties from the group of nouns.
It should be noted that participles in the English language are not the same as in Russian.
The auxiliary verb of present time in the English language (and not only in the present) can have several forms. At least most of them have at least the same number of forms, as proper verbs. For example, ‘be’ is multipara, as it has more than 50 different variations. Actually, all auxiliary verbs in the English language in different situations can behave according to different groups: they either act as modal verbs or as verbs ligaments, or indicate denial, or are used to enhance the effect of the main verb. The auxiliary verbs in the English language can also be used as notional verbs (‘To be or not to be’).
4 times (tenses)
- Past, Past, the first verb is put in the past. indefinite time.
- The future, Future, is substituted by the auxiliary modal verb ‘will’ (For I ’and‘ We ’is obsolete‘ shall ’).
- The future is in the past, Future In The Past (which is also called conditional, Conditional), the auxiliary modal verb ‘would / should’ is substituted.
- Completed lasting, Perfect Continuous.
4 main types and use of auxiliary verbs in English
– ‘Be’, which is used as a linking verb in the formation of the passive voice and to build a subjunctive when used in the form of bundles, it is considered a ‘main verb‘ – that is, for example, negation is used with ‘don't’
- ‘Have’, is used either as a modal verb, or for making Perfect, and then it requires that the next verb be put into the FH form. past tense
- ‘Do’, which helps to ask questions and make denials.
- The group of modal verbs (modal verbs) - ‘can’, ‘may’; in addition to the modal verbs proper, there are also semi-modal verbs that have a similar property of transferring an action to a semantic verb, but their syntax does not always correspond to the modal proper; after modal verbs, the basic form is used.
The auxiliary verbs in the English language subject clearly fixed the order – first is the Perfect ‘have’, followed by Continuous of ‘be’, followed by Passive ‘be’. Of course, subject to availability. Accordingly, if for the Perfect ‘have’ is Continuous ‘be’, ‘be’ must be in a form and. elapsed time (which he had ‘been’), as required by ‘have’. And if Continuous of ‘be’ is Passive ‘be’, ‘be’ stands in the form of the and. Nast. time, as required by the Continuous of ‘be’ (‘being’). ‘Do’ is used with other accessory. Chapter only as a notional verb.
So it turns out that auxiliary verbs in the English language are involved in the formation of shell structures on the principle of layers. Clearly the following table shows the auxiliary verbs in the English language at times and aspects:
At first glance this rule may seem complicated. However, in practice it is much reactivee and easier to use than memorizing all 16 temporal-aspectual structures. You can draw an analogy with mathematical Sciences – if you have not mastered addition and subtraction, you will find it difficult to understand the principles of multiplication and division
Questions and denials
The first semantic or auxiliary verbs in the English language in questions are taken out for the subject. In the negatives, ‘don’t / doesn’t’ is added to the semantic ones, and simply not ’to the auxiliary ones.