The existing economic structure and foreign trade of Russia should become an impetus to the provision of new methods of development, since the old ones were not effective. Our country will experience a slowdown in economic growth if it continues to lag behind other states in the field of effective production and scientific and technological progress. This can lead to a deterioration in the welfare of the population, as well as the lack of a predisposition of the country to independent development.
It is worthwhile to find out what the external trade of Russia is, the statistics of which are able to tell about many things. But for starters it is worth familiarizing with the concept of world trade.
International trade is the process of buying and selling services and goods that are committed between sellers, buyers, as well as their intermediaries from different countries. It contains import and export of goods. The relationship between them is a trade balance, and the amount is the trade turnover.
Under the influence of scientific and technological revolution and MRI changes the commodity structure of world trade. Due to this condition, world trade becomes the main factor not only economic, but also political and social development. The most powerful driving component of the world economy development is foreign trade.
Sources of efficiency improvement
Participation in international trade provides the country with an opportunity to increase the level of satisfaction of public needs. It is worth mentioning the following sources of increasing efficiency:
- Increased competition in the domestic market.
- Savings achieved by increasing the scale of production.
- Possibility of using and receiving resources outside the country.
- Application of the principle of "comparative advantage".
Principles of International Trade
International trade, carried out in modern conditions, has the following principles:
- Economic relations between the participants in trade are based on the absence of interference in the internal affairs of the state, self-determination and respect for sovereign equality.
- Discrimination based on differences in socio-economic systems should be absent.
- Countries have the right to carry out sovereign trade.
- Social progress and economic development contribute to the strengthening of peaceful relations, and therefore should be achieved through joint efforts of members of the international community.
- Foreign economic policy should be implemented to achieve MRI.
- World trade is regulated by rules that do not prevent social and economic progress.
- Countries reach cooperation by concluding international treaties.
- International trade should be beneficial for both parties and can not contain actions that negatively affect the interests of other countries.
- It is necessary to promote the development of integration and other forms of economic cooperation between the countries that are at the development stage.
In addition, it is worth noting that developed countries and international institutions are committed to increasing the flow of technical and financial assistance to support those countries that are at the development stage. At the same time, their development needs must be taken into account.
Foreign trade of the Russian Federation. The problems and reasons for their occurrence
For a long time Russia has been a supplier of raw materials and semi-finished products for the world market. Domestic manufacturing industry was far from the leading positions in international exports. The main problems of Russia's foreign trade in the provision of competitive manufacturing industries were the continued closure of the USSR from foreign markets.
A high degree of militarization of the economy combined with a small amount of financial resources led to the actual division of the economy into two parts. The first was a developed and secured complex of defense industries. The second part was technically backward sphere, consisting of civilian branches. It is rather important that the majority of the products of the machine-building complex were directed to developing countries that had political ties with the USSR.
At the present time, the main part of domestic exports is also occupied by raw materials. This condition is due to the state's significant dependence on markets with a lack of a stable market environment. At the same time, regular fluctuations in prices prevent the provision of a stable supply of currency to the country. In this situation, the regulation of Russia's foreign trade should be carried out at a high level.
Also negative is the circumstance that a significant part of domestic exports is produced by environmentally harmful production. These include the pulp and paper, chemical and metallurgical industries.
Commodity structure of Russia's exports and imports
In the commodity structure of domestic exports, the raw material orientation remained, in which energy carriers are predominant. This is evidenced by the dynamics of Russia's foreign trade. Half of the total exports of the country consists of fuel and energy products. Then follows metals, chemicals, precious stones and products made from them.
The level of competitiveness of the state is evidenced by foreign trade in machinery and equipment. In Russia, it takes only a tenth of total exports.
The unfavorable commodity structure of Russia's foreign trade can be explained by the lack of competitiveness of the majority of types of finished products. This indicator for imports is fairly stable.
This structure of Russia's foreign trade underwent serious changes in the 90s. Initially, its trading partners were former socialist countries, which accounted for about 67% of the commodity turnover. Mutual trade between them fell to 10% by the end of the last century due to changes in the terms of cooperation.
In the Russian Federation, the share of exports of countries with developed industry has sharply increased. At present, a significant part of the raw materials and products of its direct processing are supplied to these markets. Access to finished products for developed countries is difficult. This is explained by the fact that different methods are applied to domestic exporters to impede the realization of their competitive advantages.
Russia's foreign trade with the states that develop is highly unstable. The Russian Federation has actively developed foreign trade relations with the CIS countries and is interested in their preservation. In addition, through the territories of most of them, there are important communications of Russia for foreign trade. In particular, these are automobile and railway highways, as well as oil and gas pipelines.
Current trends in the development of exports and imports of Russia
It is worth noting that the Russian Federation has the following export development trends:
- preservation of dependence of some branches of manufacturing of production from external commodity markets;
- export is dominated by the dominance of raw materials with a decrease in foreign trade of machine-technical products;
- for the import is characterized by a change in the structure and preservation of a significant share of the commodity group consisting of machinery, vehicles and equipment;
- for imports - a significant portion of food products and raw materials for their production;
- keeping the share of the CIS countries at a low level and increasing the share of countries with a developed industry.
These trends will improve the degree of development that distinguishes Russia's foreign trade, and will allow it to take a higher position in the international market.
Export Development Strategy of the Russian Federation
To develop the country's trade, it is necessary to increase the share of goods in the export with a high level of processing, and first of all - finished products. At the same time, diversification of the geographical distribution of international trade should be strengthened. Russia should return to the markets of developed countries and increase the share of the CIS countries. Further development of import substitution is required. Consequently, Russia's foreign trade will gradually develop.
An alternative to the country's raw exports may be the concentration of its potential not in the engineering sector, but in industries with higher competitiveness, for example, nuclear power engineering, high technologies and programming.