And again the verb. The insidious part of speech, the study of which includes many rules and exceptions. In this article, let us touch upon the concept of the verb type and the correct use of verbs of one or another kind in speech.
What is the verb type?
The type of the verb in the Russian language is determined by the question asked for the word. If you askwhat to do? Is an imperfect kind ifwhat to do? - Perfect. In other words, the action can be either committed at the time of speech, or not completed - this determines the form.
Read the book (what to do? imperfect view) - the action is not completed, it is being done at the moment.Read the book (what to do?) - the action is already completed, it is complete, therefore, the form of this verb is perfect.
How are the verb forms and time related?
The time and kind of the verb in the Russian language are very closely related. On the action that is not committed, you can speak in the form of any time:i baked pies, I bake pies, I'll bake pies. In other words, the imperfective verbs can take the form of any of the three times. It should be remembered that such verbs have the form of a complex future tense (an infinitive with a modal verb).
Unlike them, verbs of a perfect kind can stand only in the past or the future tense. In other words, the action was either committed, or will be committed. Categories of the present tense have no such words. After all, verbs of a perfect kind designate either the beginning of the action, or its result, while the present-day form implies the extent of the action, the period of its fulfillment. Consequently, these two concepts exclude each other.
In the formation of the future time a simple form is used.I baked pies - I'll bake pies .
The main ways of forming verb types
Now we have figured out what kind of verb is in Russian. How are words of the perfect or imperfect kind formed?
Most often, for the formation of a perfect species, it suffices to add the word prefix. The meaning changes - the question also changes.Go(what to do?) – come(what to do) ; swim - swim, swim, swim; draw - draw, draw, draw etc.
However, do not think that the species can be determined by the presence of a prefix. For example, a wordbuy does not have a prefix, but answers the questionwhat to do?. which means that it belongs to the perfect species.
The verb form in Russian can be changed with the help of a suffix.Seal - tighten, invite - invite, shout - shout.
Infrequent case: replacement of the base
There are cases when a different kind of verb is formed by replacing the stem (table). The Russian language is complicated and cunning. For native speakers, there is nothing strange about the fact that changing the species can change the whole word completely, but foreigners have to learn a lot by heart. Let's give some examples.
These are just a few "special" verbs that need to be remembered. Particular attention should be paid to the verb"Put" - its root is used only without a prefix, but when you add it, it changes to the root -lay down etc.).
It so happens that the specific forms of verbs in the Russian language can be distinguished only in context, because words having different meanings sound the same. Most often such words can be identified by the suffix-irova or ova- (-Eva-). Attack, award, vaccinate, start, etc. It took a very long time to start(what did you do?) – He successfully started(What did you do?).
To determine the type of such a verb, you need to carefully examine the context and correctly ask the question.
What do you need to know about the types of the verb?
It would seem that it can be complicated in such a concept as a kind of verb? In Russian there are rules and more difficult. But, strangely enough, it is with this rule that one of the most common errors in the construction of sentences and even texts is related. The point is that the verb form and all verbal forms (recall that communion and gerunds are some linguistic schools to independent parts of speech, others to special forms of the verb) must be one in a certain speech segment. That is, the action is either committed (will be committed), or is committed at the time of speech.
“Grandmother baked pies, made tea, invited us to dinner, and we wanted to stay "- in one sentence, the verbs of the one and the other kind alternate, which makes the meaning of the phrase difficult to grasp. "When I went to my neighbor, I asked him if he had salt "- in this sentence the form of the verbal participle and verb does not coincide, the action seems to have already been performed, but at the same time it does not. It is more correct to construct a phrase like this: "I went to my neighbor and asked. “
Let's sum up the results
So, the verb form is very simple: you just need to ask a question ("what to do?" Or "what to do?"). Verbs of imperfect species are used in the form of any time; perfect - only in the past or the future. It is very important to correctly use the form of this or that kind of verb, so that the phrase is logically correct and understandable!
We hope that the article will help to avoid verbal errors. Be literate!