And again the verb. The insidious part of speech, the study of which includes many rules and exceptions to them. In this article, we will touch on the concept of the form of a verb and the correct use of verbs of one kind or another in speech.
What is a kind of verb?
The type of the verb in the Russian language is determined by the question asked for the word. If we askwhat to do? - this is an imperfect view ifwhat to do? - perfect. In other words, the action can be either completed at the moment of speech, or not perfect - this is what determines the appearance.
Read a book (what to do? imperfect view) - the action is not completed, it takes place at the moment.Read a book (what to do?) - the action has already been completed, it is done, therefore, the form of this verb is perfect.
How are the verb's type and time related?
The time and type of the verb in Russian are very closely related. About an action that is not committed, you can speak in the form of any time:i baked pies, I bake pies, I will bake pies. In other words, imperfective verbs can take the form of any of the three tenses. It should be remembered that such verbs have the form of a complex future tense (infinitive with a modal verb).
In contrast, verbs of the perfect form can only stand in the past or future tense. In other words, the action was either committed or will be committed. Categories of the present tense have no such words. After all, the verbs of the perfect form denote either the beginning of the action, or its result, while the present tense form implies the length of the action, the period of its completion. Therefore, these two concepts are mutually exclusive.
In the formation of future tense, a simple form is used.I baked pies - I bake pies .
The main ways to form verbs
Now we figured out what kind of verb in the Russian language. How are words of perfect or imperfect form formed?
Most often for the formation of the perfect form is enough to add the word prefix. The meaning changes - the question changes.Go(what to do?) – come(what to do) ; swim - swim, swim, swim; draw - draw, draw, draw etc.
However, do not think that the view can be determined by the presence of the console. For example, the wordbuy has no prefix, but answers the questionwhat to do?. therefore, it refers to the perfect form.
The appearance of the verb in the Russian language can be changed with the help of a suffix.To condense - to condense, to invite - to invite, to shout - to shout.
Infrequent: base replacement
There are cases when replacing the stem forms another kind of verb (table). Russian language is complicated and cunning. For native speakers, there is nothing strange in the fact that changing a species can completely change the entire word, but foreigners have to learn a lot by heart. Let's give some examples.
These are just a few “special” verbs to keep in mind. Particular attention should be removed verb“Put” - its root is used only without the prefix, but when added, it changes to the root -lozh- (put down etc.).
It so happens that the specific forms of verbs in the Russian language can be distinguished only in context, because words having different meanings sound the same. Most often such words can be identified by the suffix-irova or ova- (-Eva-). Attack, reward, vaccinate, start, etc. He started very long(what have you been doing?) – He successfully started(What did you do?).
To determine the type of such a verb, you need to very carefully understand the context and correctly ask the question.
What you need to know about the types of the verb?
It would seem, what can be difficult in such a concept as a kind of verb? In Russian there are rules and more difficult. But, oddly enough, this rule is one of the most common mistakes in the construction of sentences and even texts. The fact is that the type of the verb and all verb forms (we recall that some linguistic schools refer to the participle and the participle to independent parts of speech, others to special forms of the verb) should be the same in a certain segment of speech. That is, the action is either committed (to be committed), or is performed at the time of speech.
“Grandma baked cakes, brewed tea, invited us to dinner, and we wanted to stay ”- in the same sentence, the verbs of both types alternate, which makes it difficult to grasp the meaning of the phrase. “Going to a neighbor, I asked if he had salt ”- in this sentence the form of the verbal adverb and the verb do not coincide, the action seems to have already been done, but at the same time it does not. It is more correct to build a phrase like this: “Going to a neighbor, I asked. “
Let's sum up
So, it is very simple to define a verb type: you just need to ask a question (“what to do?” Or “what to do?”). Imperfect verbs are used in the form of any tense; perfect - only in the past or the future. It is very important to use the form of a particular verb correctly so that the phrase is logically correct and understandable!
We hope that the article will help to avoid speech errors. Be literate!