Economic, territorial and political interests of European countries at the turn of the twentieth century intersect in many areas. The struggle for influence in the international arena is beyond the scope of diplomatic relations is the beginning of the armed conflict. The first world war was started for the redistribution of spheres of influence of the largest world powers. The results were disastrous for the economies of all member countries (except USA and Japan), but the new order has led to even more serious consequences. Signed with great difficulty the Treaty of Versailles was a time bomb.
The emergence of a military Alliance called the Entente was due to the increasing influence of the German Empire on the European political and economic arenas. Initially, the unit included France and Russia, which comprise solely military-political agreement, later joined by the Kingdom, lost to the beginning of the century the superiority of their craft industries. The Central part of Europe is Austria-Hungary, which teeters on the brink of civil war due to the multinational composition, but it is in confrontation with larger and more powerful neighbour – Russia. Germany is developing rapidly, in comparison with European neighbours, her colonial possessions are too small, so the intention is obvious. As an ally to the Germans joined the Italians, Austrians and Hungarians. The balance of power has varied over military action, only participated in 38 countries. The first world war began in 1914, it lasted 5 years and was completed in November 1918. Military operations were conducted in the West, the Eastern front and in the colonies. Germany and its allies start an offensive in 1914 quite successful, capturing Luxembourg and Belgium. The French army is trying to contain the onslaught by bloody battles, Russia is quite successful in the East, capturing Prussia. In 1915-16 years are the most tragic of events: the battle of Verdun and the Brusilov offensive, which was the last success of the Russian Imperial army. With the accession to the armies of the Entente Americans the war is changing. Germany's allies signed a peace Treaty with the States-winners, this forces the Germans to surrender. The tragic events that exploded of the Russian Empire from the inside, bringing her out of the war in 1917 and left outside the international economic and political relations for a long period. The Treaty of Versailles is a documentary reflection of the end of world war II.
In fact, by 1918, all the industry and agriculture of European countries was shifted to military needs. In the course of the war destroyed more than 60% of enterprises, thousands of hectares of agricultural land could not be used for its intended purpose. The loss of the main resource – human life – is difficult to assess, more than 10 million people died, the number of disabled and unhealthy population is incalculable. The demographic situation in Europe was on the verge of collapse. Economic ties between countries and businesses were lost, all international trade, economic infrastructure collapsed, its Foundation – trade ceased to exist. Hunger, chaos and destruction reigned on the territory of the winners and States that lost the war. The reserves sides of the confrontation have been exhausted, the lender for all parties to the conflict were the United States. During the conflict they were selling military equipment, food, and all that was required for the maintenance of troops and civilians during the war. As an outside observer, the United States failed to raise its industry and earn huge capital. In Europe part of the former countries are unable to cope with huge losses and ceased to exist: the Ottoman, German, Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires. The terms of the Treaty of Versailles really facilitated a new division of Europe, not in the scenario the Germans. For the military-industrial complex world war I was the catalyst in the process of creation and use of new types of weapons. Machine guns, tanks, grenades, bombers and fighters greatly changed the tactics and strategy of combat operations. The first use of chemical weapons has enabled all countries to make the right conclusion and to abandon its application. More violent clashes have not been in the history of the world, the mass destruction of enemy forces has led to huge losses on all sides of the conflict.
The first world war was the cause of the changes in world economic and political system. The Russian Empire was given at the initial stage, the leading role in the military operations of the Entente against the Triple Alliance, but our country at the time of involvement in the conflict had special geopolitical motives. The resource base has enabled the state to fight for colonial possessions, for the extension of territory at the expense of neighboring countries, the reasons were not. Nicholas II was forced to join the war as they had at the time military and political agreements with Britain and France, this decision cost him his throne and life. The army and the logistical structures of the Russian Empire are unable to conduct a protracted war, quickly enough initiative on the Eastern front, transferred to the army of the enemy. Part of the territory of Ukraine, the Baltic States and Belarus was occupied by German troops. In 1916 the Russian army was able to restore viability and partially to delay the enemy forces from the Western front, preventing the capture of Paris. In France the cost of huge losses was released several towns previously occupied by the Germans. The last significant victory was the Brusilov offensive, in which the Austro-Hungarian army was defeated by the Russian Imperial troops. Meanwhile, inside the country there is a growing dissatisfaction with the policy of the king, he is rapidly losing the confidence of the people. On the background of military actions that are not the victorious character, constraints, and hunger is the revolution. The new government begins to solve the internal problems in and out of the world conflict in not favorable terms. A peace Treaty concluded with Germany, is shameful flight, which did not accept many of the officers and soldiers. Part of the Imperial troops fought on the battlefields of the First world war in the formations of the allies, considering it a debt of honor. For Soviet Russia, a period of international isolation, most of the world powers believed the Bolshevik government is illegitimate, and therefore the Treaty of Versailles was signed without the participation of Russian. This will further play a huge role not only in the development of our country, but also in the world political and economic system.
Having a relatively powerful army, Navy and big ambitions, Wilhelm II pursued an aggressive foreign policy. Germany, having allies Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, could not conduct military operations on two fronts at the same time. According to the calculations of the Germans, they would in a short time to capture France and then switch to the destruction of the forces of the Russian Empire. Emphasis is on speed and support of the countries of the Triple Alliance. This is actually the German troops were forced to act in the Balkans, in Africa, in Europe and Asia. This is due to the great maneuverability and combat capability of the German compounds. Virtually all marine operations with the participation of troops of the Triple Alliance was led by officers of the German Empire. In 1915, a massive offensive in the French capital was disrupted due to the inability of the Austro-Hungarian troops to hold the position of the Eastern front. In fact, Germany was defeated in the First world war for economic reasons. Within four years, all industrial and agricultural power of the state worked for the army. Famine and war led to the revolution, which ended the rebellion in the army and the overthrow of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918. At the same time, Germany acknowledges defeat and concludes an armistice with the Entente countries (excluding Russia, which after the revolution became known as the USSR).
The Treaty of Versailles
Peaceful settlement of the military conflict was a long process of coordination of the contradictions of the winners. The allies advanced at the expense of Japan and the United States, began the division of Europe and of colonial possessions in Africa and the far East. The treaties of the Versailles system had to ensure the independence and stability of States that won the First world war, the interests of the losers infringed through financial instruments and territorial annexations. The international conference was held in Paris in 1919-1920 G. the Treaty of Versailles was signed in June 1919. Its main articles have become items on which consensus was reached at the international conference. The document came into force in January 1920. His project was proposed by Wilson (the then-current President of the USA) in 1918. The essence of the Treaty of Versailles in the original version was limited to the spheres of influence of the winners, in particular the United States. The supremacy in Europe had the Americans need in terms of economic indicators, but the allies had their own interests. The document was to limit the influence of all countries participating in the conflict, not only with the losing party, whose leader was Germany. The Treaty of Versailles created a group of independent States on the territory of Central Europe, which served as a buffer zone between Soviet Russia and Western European powers. To maintain peace and prevent potential conflicts, a document was created a special organization called the League of Nations. The Treaty of Versailles was ratified by the Entente: Britain, France, Japan, from the Triple Alliance: Germany. In 1921 the Americans was created by the Versailles-Washington system of treaties, which did not differ essentially from the original version, but ruled out participation in the League of Nations. Germany was forced to sign it.
The League of nations
The Treaty of Versailles is a document on the basis of which was created the first international organization designed to regulate relations between countries through diplomacy. The League of Nations during its existence has created several committees that specialized in the analysis of the situation in specific areas: women's rights, trafficking, refugees, etc. In its composition at different times included 58 countries, the founders are France, Spain, UK. The last meeting of the Council of the League of Nations was held in 1946. Existing today, many international institutions are its successors and continuers of traditions: UNESCO, UN, international court, world health organization.
The main terms of the Versailles Treaty meant the exclusion of the territory of Germany in favour of the winners and the newly formed States created after the collapse of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empire. Most of them had anti-Soviet government and was used as a buffer against Bolshevism. Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Finland, Yugoslavia passed a hard path of political settlement. Under the terms of the Treaty Germany was separated: Poland – 43 thousand km 2. Denmark – 4 thousand km 2. France – more than 14 thousand km 2. Lithuania – 2.4 thousand km 2. 50 kilometer zone of the left Bank of the Rhine was to be demilitarized, ie it was actually occupied by enemy troops for 15 years. The Brest peace Treaty, concluded between Germany and Soviet Russia were cancelled, which led to the return of the occupied lands (partially Belarus, the Caucasus, Ukraine). The Saar is placed under the control of the League of Nations, when using the coal mines of France. The Gdansk district was declared a free city. Germany lost all colonial possessions, which were distributed among the Victor countries. Rights of protectorate over Egypt and Morocco, was transferred to England and France respectively. Germany taken on lease for 99 years of China's territory was transferred to Japan, therefore the most numerous delegation left the international conference and signed the Treaty of Versailles. Briefly the main provisions rejected in favor of the victorious 70 thousand km 2. with a population of over 5,000 people.
The result of the military aggression of Germany affected many areas of Central, Eastern and Western Europe, reparations in their favor also reflected the Treaty of Versailles. The articles of the document did not contain specific numbers, they were defined by specially created Commission. The total amount of payments at the initial stage was approximately 100 thousand tons of gold. The restrictions were introduced in the armed forces of the aggressor countries. Was cancelled conscription, all the military equipment was transferred to the Entente countries, the number of ground troops. In fact Germany of the most influential countries in Western Europe had become a powerless member of the international relations. The living conditions of the population and the constant pressure by the victors allowed the Nazi regime to come to power in 1933, and to create a more powerful totalitarian state, which in the future with the help of the US and Britain will be a counterweight in a secret war with the Soviet Union. According to the conclusions of many historians, the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 was a truce, which led to a new war. The Germans were humiliated by the terms of the document, they lost the war, not allowing on its territory any enemy soldier, and was the only aggressor country, which suffered the brunt of economic and military-political limitations.
Versailles-Washington Treaty system actually exacerbated relations between the former allies. The Americans and British sought to reduce the burden of the obligations of Germany to plan a "cabin boy", it is possible to accelerate the recovery of the economy and industry of the country by 1929. Hoping to purchase a reliable ally in the struggle against the USSR, the United States invested quite large sums on the restoration of the former aggressor. England sought to reduce French influence in the European arena, which is due reparations for five years, almost restored the economy. At that time, Germany finds an unexpected ally – the USSR. Two major States to have fallen out of the system of international relations are combined. And long enough to effectively cooperate in the creation of military equipment, trade, food supply. Japan starting to increase their appetites in the far East and in China, among the allies there is no unity, each country pursues its own interests. The Versailles Treaty is being violated in the first place its creators, who were preparing for peace but got war.
The world after the First world war on the basis of points of the Treaty of Versailles contained many contradictions. It is impossible to ensure control of the situation, eliminating from international relations the sixth part of the globe. The concept of the 14 points of the document were anti-Russian (anti-Soviet) orientation. Consent and equality are the main principles of any agreement. A special role in the failure of the peace agreements played a negative economic factors that are associated with the process of cyclical development of any system. While the leading imperialist powers were busy in their own economies, Germany not only learned how to maneuver and to get around the Versailles agreement, but also created a new mode of aggression. Largely this happened because of the principle of non-interference of the countries of the former Entente in its war policy. The creation of a new military machine was welcomed by former allies because they hoped to direct its aggression in the East. USA, in turn, decided to raise the rate of growth of its own economy at the expense of a new war in Europe.