Coal is the most abundant resource in the world. He is the first type of fossil fuel to use. Russian coal industry belongs to the category of the most important sectors of the economy. Next, let us consider this sphere.
Coal is a combustible fossil. It is the fossilized remnant of the freshwater plants of antiquity. This fuel possesses certain quality characteristics. Coal is known to be used as fuel. The significance of fossil and chemical industry, it acts as a raw material in the manufacture of plastics and artificial fibers. A special kind of coal in large quantity going for the manufacture of coke, which, in turn, is used in the steel industry. As a promising direction examines the production of liquid fuels by burning this fuel. The Ministry of energy and coal industry acts as the coordinating body in the industry.
Classification of fuel
Coal depending on the type of heat treatment is presented in two types: anthracite and lignites. The last characteristic of low calorific value, and the first, respectively the highest. High calorie coal, thus, used in metallurgy and low – calorie- the energy industry.
By the end of 1980-ies in the world of steel intensively consumed energy resources, and the highest concerned the coal. According to the results of several studies of the coal reserves will last for 120 years. The share of domestic stocks in total amounts to 23%. Coal industry of Russia today stands as a market segment of the economy. Almost all the companies engaged in this industry are private.
Characterization of the coal industry
In the depths of the country concentrated around four trillion tons of predicted reserves. This, in turn, represents approximately 30% of global deposits. In no other country there is no such reserves. In this regard, Russia remains the largest country of coal and is a leader in the manufacturing and fuel production. March 2009 marked consistently high performance in terms of exports. So, according to the FCS, they amounted to no less than 8.5-9 million tons In 2009, the total export volume of coal has exceeded the figures of the previous year. Fuel is consumed in all regions of the country. The geography of the coal industry is quite extensive.
It was opened in 1721. From the 1920s, the pool became widely developed. The volume of their reserves and quality of minerals Kuzbass is one of the largest coal basins in the world. On a relatively small area concentrated a strong Deposit. It produces coal suitable for coking, production of raw materials for the chemical industry, liquid fuels. Located in the Kuznetsk basin in Western Siberia, in the Kemerovo region. It stretches along the TRANS-Siberian railway is 800 km. the Basin has an area of 26 thousand sq. km. In the country the share of this field accounts for 60% of total production. In the pool there is coal different grades, from anthracite to brown. A large part of the reserves attributable to coking valuable minerals – about 40% of the total production. The swimming pool is located in areas with favorable mining and geological conditions. This, in turn, provides a relatively low cost of development. Mining is carried out both mine and the open pit. The main enterprises of coal industry of the Kuzbass is located in such centres as Leninsk-Kuznetsk, Anzhero-Sudzhensk, Prokopyevsk. Raw materials supplied to the Cherepovets, Novokuznetsk, West-Siberian metallurgical plants. The coal industry of Kuzbass are presented in the form of a complex production-technological complex. It includes more than twenty different companies, and an independent reserves and mines.
This is the second important field. Therein lies the whole gamut of coal for the development and existence of energy and raw material base of coking plants. In industrial scale development of the basin was begun in 1934. It is located in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the Komi Republic. The total area of 90 thousand sq. km. the Eastern part belongs to the Ural regional deflection. In accordance with the nature and characteristics of plansnote identifies nine geological-industrial districts. Among them the most used are considered to be Vorga-Shor, Galleryonce, INTA, Vorkuta. They are formed and the main production centers. Developing a pool is a closed method. It provides high quality coal. However, there is a number of high cost factors. These include, in particular, include climate conditions (permafrost, low temperature, etc.), distance from important industrial centres, the ow thickness. This and more is the cause of the adverse technical and economic indicators of the level of production on a large scale, which hinders the development of the basin.
This pool is located in the South of Krasnoyarsk region, Irkutsk and Kemerovo regions. It runs along the TRANS-Siberian railway. The area of the open part of the order of 45 thousand sq. km. of the Pool divided by the Yenisei river into 2 parts: Eastern and Western. The total geological reserves – 601 billion Main fields are the Sayano-Partisan, Abansky, Irsha-Borodino, Nazarovsky, Bogotol, Iranskoe, Baranduda, Berezovsky. Its composition is mainly of humic coal. The strata lie horizontally, close enough to the surface. The Kansk-Achinsk basin is located in areas with favorable mining and geological conditions of development. This provides a relatively low cost. Due to the shallow occurrence of the development is done by the open method.
The South-Yakut basin
It is located on the territory of the Aldan plateau. The pool stretches in the latitudinal direction, along the slopes of the Northern part of the backbone. Its length is 750 km, with an area of 25 thousand sq. km. In the composition of the pool includes Tokyo, Gonski, Itemwise, Usmansky areas. The total geological reserves – 24,17 billion tons. Due to the fact that the pool is located in a remote area, lack of reliable transport links to major centres, and potential customers far removed from it, the development is significantly impeded.
Today, the domestic coal industry comprises over 240 mining companies, including 150 of the cuts 96 and the mines. Their total production capacity is more than 360 million tonnes a year. The main today is, undoubtedly, the Kuzbass. It accounts for more than half of total production. It should be noted that in the last decade, the coal industry in the country is ensured mainly through the introduction of new production technologies. In the period from 2000 to 2009 in the Kuzbass open 22 of the section 19 and mines. Their total production capacity of 58 million tons.
The Ministry of energy and coal industry approved a project of strategic importance for the period up to 2030. It is supposed to be a phased implementation. The first stage should be completed in 2015. The next stage will take place from 2020 to 2022. The final stage will be the period from 2022 to 2030. The first phase of the project was associated with overcoming the consequences of the crisis, the second – with the overall growth of energy and economy. The final stage should be focused on the development and implementation of highly efficient methods for the use of existing resources.
The Ministry of coal industry says that the necessary conditions for effective activities of a branch is favorable market conditions. Due to it provides the required level of investment in high costs. As the Minister of coal industry, costs are mainly related to the provision of transport and the immediate development of reserves in remote areas. Due to the low investment attractiveness, many owners are forced to abandon the implementation of promising programs, to reduce production costs. The latter is ensured by the suspension of work on the preparation of new fields. At this stage it is considered the main limiting factor.
As a result of the decline of investment attractiveness of fuel production in many districts and towns, the aggravation of social issues that are associated with the closure of incisions and mines, suspension of development of promising areas. The employees of the coal industry delivered often in the most difficult conditions. This is particularly true in the mining towns and cities where the main activities related to the industry. Problems of the coal industry are observed not only in our country. In particular, in connection with the recent events hampered production and transportation of fuel in the Donbas. The Ministry of coal industry of Ukraine poses a number of essential tasks which will allow you to resume the production and extraction of raw materials. However, the achievement of goals is impossible without well-coordinated work of all departments of the country. The Minister of energy and coal industry said that the export of raw materials from Donbass hampered by logistics issues.
Possible ways out of the situation
In the current market conditions the domestic coal industry should be provided with modern technologies of extraction of raw materials. Of great importance for effective activity in the industry has lower production costs, increase of indicators of technical and economic level. It should be ensured high safety of people engaged in the extraction and subsequent processing of raw materials. It all depends on the investment attractiveness of the implemented projects of fuel production. Based on this, as promising directions of development of the industry as a whole acts as a large-scale modernization of production and ensuring the involvement of high-tech stocks in the testing.
In modern conditions there is an increase in the value of restructuring the industry. It should be aimed at the transformation of the organizational and productive structures of the coal industry. The main terms of the restructuring are:
- Formation of competitive companies.
- Sequential decrease in state support.
- Ecological, social and economic recovery, ensuring stability in coal-mining areas and social protection of people employed in the industry.
The choice of the most effective strategy has a close relationship with the pace, efficiency and directions of the socio-economic reforms carried out in the country.