Urea - the oldest fertilizer, one of the most effective and inexpensive, is used both in private summer cottages and in growing crops on an industrial scale. This substance was discovered by chemist Ruel in 1773. It is noteworthy that urea was the first organic substance obtained from inorganic. This successful experiment was conducted by the scientist Völer in 1828. Of course, when using urea as a top dressing, a certain technology should be observed.
It is a carbamide, the use in the garden and in the garden of which allows to significantly increase the yield of crops, a white crystalline powder that dissolves well in water. It is obtained by mixing carbon dioxide with ammonia at a pressure of 200 atm. and a temperature of 200 grams. Its main active substance is nitrogen (46%).
Being introduced into the soil, urea is converted to ammonium carbonate over several days. Store this fertilizer in an airtight container. The fact is that it is quite hygroscopic, quickly gaining moisture and at the same time pressed into lumps.
There are several varieties of carbamide produced for different purposes: treating people, industrial production, feeding animals, etc. U type B is used in agriculture.
Where and how is used
Loams, sandstones, peat, calcareous - carbamide can be used on all these types of soils. Its application stimulates the development of plants, increases their frost resistance and resistance to diseases. Urea can handle any garden and garden crops.
One of the undoubted advantages of carbamide is that it practically does not burn the green parts of plants. However, to observe the concentration of this fertilizer according to the technology is still necessary. In the case of an overdose, the plants begin to very quickly gain green mass to the detriment of fruiting.
General rules of application
How to use urea correctly? Application in the garden or in the fields of large agricultural enterprises of this tool is possible both as a foliar and conventional feeding. Before use, the powder is diluted in water in the proportions for a particular culture. Next, produce watering plants or spraying. It is also allowed to simply spill urea on the ground with the subsequent watering of the landings. But it is better to close it up in the ground. The fact is that carbon dioxide is volatile, moreover, it quickly decomposes in the air.
A feature of urea, among other things, is that it is capable of slightly acidifying the soil. Therefore, it is usually used simultaneously with hydrated lime (for 1 kg - 0.8 g). Spraying it is carried out at a temperature of at least 10 grams. and no more than 25 grams. in evening time. Under such conditions, nitrogen is absorbed by plants especially intensely.
Spraying garden crops
Fruit trees and berry bushes with carbamide are often treated for the prevention of disease and infection with insects. In this case, urea is most often used, which is intended specifically for the treatment of garden crops. It is sold in a box in the amount of 700 g complete with copper sulphate (50 g). This dose of fertilizer is diluted in 10 liters of water. Use the resulting solution in the spring, before the blooming of the kidneys. Sometimes they also carry out autumn treatments.
In terms of effectiveness in terms of preventing diseases of trees and shrubs, such a mixture is superior to even Bordeaux liquid. The fact is that carbamide not only protects garden crops from pests, but also feeds them, and also slightly delays the development of buds. As a result of its use, trees bloom later, at a time when the danger of night frost has passed.
Since the leaves are urea, the use of which, thus, for garden crops is more than justified, does not burn, spraying can be carried out copiously. However, after blooming the kidneys such a concentrated solution, of course, should not be used for processing.
Urea: application for cucumbers
Under the pumpkin urea can be made both during flowering and during the fruiting period. In the first case, foliar feeding is usually carried out. Processing of cucumbers with a solution of urea during flowering contributes to the extension of the period of fruiting. Urea must be diluted in the proportion of 15 g per 10 liters of water. Do not exceed the dosage. Although urea acts on the green parts of the plant in comparison with other nitrogenous fertilizers softer, it can still burn them.
During the fruiting cucumbers produce their root feeding. In this case, the urea is diluted in an amount of 50 g per 10 liters of water.
Use for tomatoes
For tomatoes, urea fertilizer can also be very useful. Applying it to this culture, of course, implies the observance of a certain technology. In this case, urea is usually used immediately before planting seedlings in open ground. In each well contribute a tablespoon. You can add there a little superphosphate.
If urea was fertilized in the same way, experienced gardeners do not advise her to fertilize her during the season. If the transplanting was performed without the use of urea, in the subsequent they are carried out foliar spraying. In this case, ten liters of water take a teaspoon of fertilizer. Perform processing two weeks after transplanting.
The second time, urea, the use of which can significantly increase the yield of this crop, is used during the period of mass ripening of fruits in combination with other fertilizers. The most effective is considered to be a mixture of such composition: urea, potassium sulfate, and potassium magnesia in a teaspoon per 10 liters of water.
Urea: use on wheat
In agriculture, urea is one of the most commonly used nitrogenous fertilizers. Wheat is fed to her several times per season:
- In the autumn during the pre-sowing soil preparation in the amount of 30-60 kg, depending on the composition of the soil.
- In the spring - after the snow melt in the amount of 45 g per hectare.
- At the stage of booting plants produced spraying.
- At the stage of earing produce watering. At the same time, 65 kg of fertilizer are dissolved in 150 l of water and consumed in such a way that 30 kg of urea are spent per hectare of soil.
In the table below you can see what specific properties of urea differ. Perhaps this information will be useful to someone.