Urea - the oldest fertilizer, one of the most effective and inexpensive, is used both in private dachas and in growing crops on an industrial scale. This substance was discovered by the chemist Ruel in 1773. It is remarkable that urea became the first organic substance obtained from inorganic material. This successful experiment was carried out by the scientist Weller in 1828. Of course, when using carbamide as a fertilizer, a certain technology should be observed.
Description of fertilizer
It is a carbamide, the application in the garden and in the vegetable garden of which can significantly increase the yield of crops, a white crystalline powder that dissolves well in water. It is obtained by mixing carbon dioxide with ammonia at a pressure of 200 atm. and a temperature of 200 g. Its main active substance is nitrogen (46%).
When introduced into the soil, urea is converted into carbonic ammonium for several days. Store this fertilizer in a sealed container. The fact is that it is quite hygroscopic, quickly accumulates moisture and at the same time is compressed into lumps.
There are several varieties of carbamide, produced for different purposes: human treatment, industrial production, feeding of animals, etc. Urea of grade "B" is used in agriculture.
Where and how is used
Loams, sandstones, peat, calcareous - on all these types of soils carbamide can be used. Its application stimulates the development of plants, increases their frost resistance and resistance to diseases. Processing of urea can be any garden and garden crops.
One of the unconditional advantages of carbamide is that it practically does not burn green parts of plants. However, the concentration of this fertilizer according to the technology is still necessary. In the case of an overdose, plants begin to very quickly gain green mass to the detriment of fruit bearing.
General rules of use
How to use urea correctly? The use of this remedy in the vegetable garden or in the fields of large agricultural enterprises is possible both as foliar and as a normal fertilizing. Before use, the powder is diluted in water in the proportions prescribed for this or that culture. Further, plants are watered or sprayed. It is also possible to simply scatter urea on the ground with the subsequent watering of plantings. But it is better to seal it in the ground. The fact is that ammonium carbonate is volatile, and quickly decomposes in air.
A special feature of urea, among other things, is that it is able to slightly acidify the soil. Therefore, it is usually used simultaneously with slaked lime (per 1 kg - 0.8 g). Spraying it is carried out at a temperature of not less than 10 g. and not more than 25 gr. in evening time. Under such conditions, nitrogen is absorbed by plants especially intensively.
Spraying of garden crops
Fruit trees and berry bushes with urea are often treated for the prevention of diseases and infection with insects. In this case, urea is most often used, intended specifically for the processing of garden crops. It is sold in a box in the amount of 700 grams complete with copper vitriol (50 g). This dose of fertilizer is diluted in 10 liters of water. Use the resulting solution in the spring, before bud blossoming. Sometimes they also spend the autumn treatments.
By efficiency in terms of preventing diseases of trees and shrubs, this mixture exceeds even the Bordeaux liquid. The fact is that carbamide not only protects horticultural crops from pests, but also feeds them, and also detains kidney development. As a result of its application, the trees bloom later, at a time when the danger of nocturnal frosts is already past.
Since the leaves of carbamide, the application of which, therefore, for garden crops is more than justified, does not burn, spraying can be carried out abundantly. However, after bud blossoming, such a concentrated solution, of course, should not be used for treatment.
Urea: application for cucumbers
Pumpkin urea can be applied both during flowering and during fruiting. In the first case, foliar dressing is usually performed. Processing of cucumbers with carbamide solution during flowering helps prolong the period of fruiting. Breed urea in a proportion of 15 g per 10 liters of water. Do not exceed the dosage. Although carbamide acts on the green parts of the plant in comparison with other nitrogen fertilizers softer, it can still burn them.
During the fructification of cucumbers, the root feeding is carried out. In this case, urea is diluted in an amount of 50 g per 10 liters of water.
Use for tomatoes
For carbohydrates, fertilizer can also be very useful. Its application for this culture, of course, implies the observance of a certain technology. In this case, urea is usually used immediately before planting seedlings in the open ground. A tablespoon is added to each well. You can add a little bit of superphosphate.
In the event that the urea fertilization was carried out in this way, during the season seasoned summer residents do not advise tomatoes more to fertilize it. If the seedling was planted without the use of carbamide, then they are followed by foliar spraying. Thus for ten liters of water take a teaspoon of fertilizer. Perform processing two weeks after transplanting.
The second time, carbamide, the use of which can significantly increase the yield of this crop, is used in the period of mass ripening of fruits in combination with other fertilizers. The most effective is a mixture of such a composition: urea, potassium sulfate, calimagnesium on a teaspoon per 10 liters of water.
Urea: application to wheat
In agriculture, urea is one of the most commonly used nitrogen fertilizers. Wheat feeds her several times during the season:
- In autumn, during the presowing preparation of soil in an amount of 30-60 kg, depending on the composition of the soil.
- In spring - after the snow falls in the amount of 45 g per hectare.
- At the stage of tubing plants are sprayed.
- At the stage of earing, watering is performed. At the same time, 65 kg of fertilizer is dissolved in 150 liters of water and consumed in such a way that 30 kg of carbamide per hectare of soil.
In the table below you can see what specific properties of urea differ. Perhaps this information will be useful to someone.