In the Russian language there are six cases, which are used for matching words in a sentence. If the language does not exist in this morphological category, we would not be able to understand any proposal because it does not Express any specific thoughts.
Of course, in some cases less languages (e.g. in German only four deaths), and there are those in which the category of case at all is missing (English). Each case is assigned its own form, and because the Russian language has a lot of forms of words, learn it to a foreigner – a very difficult task. Let's look at the instrumental case: questions, endings, prepositions. But let's start with the fact that he expresses.
That expresses the instrumental case?
In the Russian language there are five indirect cases (all but nominative). The case before us also applies to them. If it is difficult to understand why the instrumental case is used, it is possible to imagine the following scene: a certain person performs a specific action on an object: “I play with the dog ” .
In the Russian language, these objects would be logical to put in the form of the instrumental case. Thus, the action that makes people goes to the object. There are also situations when using the instrumental case expresses the subject (person) who performs the action. This phenomenon is observed in the passive constructions. For example, “built ushouse.”
Many linguistic phenomena are difficult to determine without context. To identify the peculiarity of some words, you need to put it in a particular speech situation – to enter into the offer. Most of the forms of the instrumental case is clearly presented in the form of a Supplement.
The endings peculiar to the instrumental case
Each language has distinctive features that separate one language from another phenomenon. And since the concept of “case” refers to the morphology, the main method of expression is flexion, or more familiar to us word – ending. With endings we can easily separate one case from another. It should be noted that the category of case is only present in the nominal parts of speech (noun, adjective, name, numeral, pronoun). Name in the instrumental case is expressed in different ways. The end of the instrumental case depend on the type of declension:
1st declension: -Oy and -Oy, -it and-it (foot – foot ).
2nd declension: th, th (window, sea).
3rd declension: -u (salt).
Knowing how to distribute words according to the types of declension and what endings the instrumental case has, you will never confuse it with any other.
Prepositions is another parameter that can be calculated a particular case. And they play a significant role in determining the forms of cases. The use of prepositions with the noun plays the explanatory function of finding the object in space and how it interacts with the surrounding things or how to interact with him. We consider the case with the use of prepositions does not specify the location of the items, he probably expresses the relationship of the subject with the environment. Prepositions that are used with the instrumental case, not so much, and to learn them is not difficult. This case used such excuses as: with, before, below, behind, above (living with parents, facing a choice, hiding under the table, come after me, a trouble hangs over the hero).
The instrumental case, as well as any other, has its issues, with which we can identify. Because to memorize questions and the case is not so difficult, it is through them that we most often defined in the form of a case pronounced a particular word. We are interested in the case answer the questions by whom? than? (I work (by whom?) As a carpenter; I take a great interest (what?) In literature). If you can't remember the question of the instrumental case, the thoughts speak: “I do what? what?”, the same can be done in any case. Then all your doubts will vanish immediately. Now let's continue to consider the instrumental case, the issues we already know.
When used the question “by whom?”, and when – “what?”
Even the course of science we all know that our environment is divided into objects of animate and inanimate nature. The same thing we see in natural language. Nouns are also divided into words that Express the living and non-living objects. In any case there is a question that is answered by a “live” object and a “lifeless”. Thus, in the instrumental case there are two questions: “who?” and “what?” The question “whom?” is used exclusively for words that denote living things, and the question “what?” only non-living. Typically, in each case the question which comes first, is intended for live subject and one for the inanimate. And special difficulties in the use of question does not occur even among schoolchildren.
Under the semantics of course meaning, which can transmit single word or any other linguistic phenomenon. Nominal parts of speech can Express a great variety of semantic values, and the instrumental case makes them more distinct. This is its main purpose. That can Express the instrumental case? Number, gender and other morphological indicators. Let's look at the most common semantic meaning of the instrumental case:
- Object (food was cooked by a cook).
- Subject (children come with us).
- The device (working with your hands, turn the screwdriver).
- Time (beautiful day).
- Tool (pencil).
- Way (fly over the city).
- Reference standard (wolf howl).
- The reason (sore throat).
- Characteristic (beautiful soul).