Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov is a famous Russian writer, whose life is shrouded in mysterious mysticism and a halo of secrets. Coming from the family of the Kiev professor, he was born on May 15, 1891, and his name was given in honor of the archangel Michael, the guardian of the city of Kiev.He began to write a young man from an early age, although many biographers claim the opposite, calling the starting point a 30-year-old age. As the short biography tells, Bulgakov at the young age was very fond of reading, absorbed the sponge as received information and remembered a lot from the read. Vera, the elder sister, claimed that her first work - "The Adventures of Svetlana" - Misha wrote at the age of seven, and at the age of 9 mastered the Notre Dame Cathedral (V. Hugo). In the Alexandrovskaya gymnasium (one of the best in Kiev), Bulgakov during his studies fully demonstrated his talents: he painted cartoons, wrote poems, played the piano, sang and wrote.
So who is he, Bulgakov?
Biography (photo of the writer can be seen below) Mikhail Afanasevich further continues his education at the Medical Faculty of the University of Kiev. After his graduation in 1914, Bulgakov worked as a doctor in Saratov, and with the outbreak of World War I - in hospitals near the front line, under the supervision of experienced military surgeons. The writer Bulgakov, whose biography is full of impressions of wartime and medical practice, wrote a series of short stories "Notes of a Young Doctor", and the fatal case that brought him with a boy suffering from diphtheria completely turned the life of a genius.Saving the child by sucking his mouth through a tube of diphtheria films from his throat, Bulgakov got infected. The introduced antidiphtheria serum caused the strongest allergic reaction, manifested by intolerable itching and an eerie rash on the body. The injection of morphine helped alleviate the pain, and repeated injections allowed to cope with the allergy, causing at the same time addiction to the "saving" drug. The narcotic addiction that emerged ruined everything in Bulgakov's life, ruthlessly taking away spiritual and physical health, rewarding the writer with panic fear and severe depression, leading to violent madness. His wife, Tatyana Nikolaevna, trying to save her husband, instead of morphine, introduced him distilled water, which caused the latter to have the strongest breakdowns.
Gogol: did he come or not?
It was during this period that Bulgakov met with Gogol, the first of three. In one of the painful attacks in the rented housing Bulgakov appeared Nikolai Vasilyevich, who quickly entered the apartment of Mikhail Afanasievich, looked at him with an insane glance and threatened his finger. From that day, a truly miraculous escape from the terrible drug addiction of Bulgakov, who did not understand, was whether Gogol's arrival was a dream or a dream. This story the writer later told in the work "Morphine".
Mikhail Bulgakov, whose biography and work was closely intertwined, was successful in his personal life and was married three times. According to the prophesy of the Kiev gypsy, over which the writer laughed at one time, in life he will get three wives: one - from God, the second - from people, the third - from the devil. After miraculous recovery Mikhail Afanasyevich opened a private practice and at the same time began to engage in writing.Tatyana Lappa went with her husband everywhere, helping him in medical activities and in incredible healing from the fatal attachment to the drug. The first world and civil wars hammered Bulgakov around the country mercilessly: the mobilization of Petliurists, the escape, the mobilization of Denikin's people, typhus, the cessation of medical activity, poverty, hunger. And always there was she - true Tasia.
Bulgakov: short biography and creativity
From 1919 to 1921, the writer lived in Vladikavkaz; it was there that he stopped practicing medicine and began to professionally engage in literary activity, working as a journalist in local newspapers. There were written for the theater comedy "Self-defense" (the production of which was successful), as well as plays "Clay grooms" and "Paris Commune", the latter was recommended by the Glavpolitprosvetom for staging in Moscow theaters.
In Moscow, Bulgakov managed to get into only in 1921. At first he grasped at any work, trying to feed himself and his wife; writing was at night. And he succeeded: Bulgakov began to print! His stories and feuilletons were on many pages of newspapers and magazines. It is with Moscow that the actions of such works as "The Dog's Heart", "Fatal Eggs" are connected.
Creativity of Mikhail Bulgakov
The novel "The White Guard" described the tragedy of the civil war, played out in Kiev - the writer's hometown, and the work shows the tragedy of the people in general and in the context of a single family of Turbins - people with a high sense of honor and dignity. Bulgakov, whose creative biography is rich in vivid moments of life, formed the basis of his works, in the novel "The White Guard" quite similarly described the Kiev house of his youth. The people who lived there some time later broke all the walls, trying in vain to find the treasure described in the work. According to the novel "The White Guard", the play "Days of the Turbins" was written, the performance staged for it was a huge success for the viewer.
Lyubov Belozerskaya - a bright spot on the gray background of ordinary Moscow life, became the second wife of the writer. Native Muscovite, she helped her husband in everything: she distributed the manuscripts according to the editions, helped to overcome provincial shyness, and selected materials for his creations. It was with her help that the plays "Kabala Svyatosh" and "Running" were created.
Difficult period, rejection
In the late 20-ies Bulgakov was attacked by literary critics. His works were judged negatively, they were no longer published, the plays were removed from the repertoire. In March 1930, exhausted and tattered Bulgakov, who found himself on the verge of poverty, turned to Stalin with a letter about the possibility of earning a living in the theater or leaving the USSR. A month later, Stalin personally called the writer, allowing him to work. Assistant director in the Moscow Art Theater, who worked as a translator and writing a libretto and periodically played in plays, that's what Bulgakov had to be content with in such a difficult period for himself.
An outlet for him was the opera Faust, to which he often went to the Bolshoi Theater; this spectacle acted on him somehow especially, raising his spirits. The next campaign for the favorite staging ended in a severe depression. This was due to his play "Batum", in which the central figure was young Stalin, and the writer recognized himself as Faustus, who sold the soul to the devil.
Is she a Margarita?
Elena Shilovskaya is the third love of the writer. A brief biography (Bulgakov again in the aura of mysticism) narrates that one day, in the fall of 1927, a writer was walking along the streets of Moscow, and suddenly a nimble little man came to him, painfully resembling a guest in the period of Bulgakov's fascination with morphine. Gogol (and this, apparently, was he) looked into the eyes of Mikhail Afanasievich and glanced at one of the nearby houses. It was there that Elena lived.
At one of the parties where they met, she asked Michael to tie a string on her sleeve, and so "tied" him to her. The wife of General Shilovsky, Elena long rushed between the two men, while her husband still agreed to a divorce. It was with the advent of Elena Bulgakov zealously began to continue writing his famous novel "Master and Margarita", started in 1929. Elena helped him in everything: she led the house, printed manuscripts, wrote under dictation, understanding that only future generations could read Bulgakov. His creation, a novel about the Master and his secret lover, about Christ and the devil, Bulgakov created in conditions of complete lack of money and hopelessness. Elena fell in love with this creation, recognizing herself in Margarita, realizing that this is the most important book in the life of the writer.
The real prototype of the cat Behemoth
By the way, the famous assistant Woland had a real prototype, which was the black dog of Mikhail Afanasevich named Begemot, very intelligent for a normal animal. There was such a case: when celebrating the New Year, the dog barked twelve times under the chiming clock, although no one taught it to her. Such an interesting story was preserved by a brief biography.
Bulgakov during this period was already struck by a deadly disease, so he dictated some of the chapters from the novel to his wife Elena. A month before his death, he finished work on his most famous work, which many are read out. It was after the publication of this novel that it was said that Bulgakov's abilities are of a different kind, otherwise how could he describe the devil himself and his retinue as accurately as possible?
The heroes of Bulgakov's works are characterized by a charm that makes them fall in love and feel the special charm of an undisclosed thought. His brief biography, Bulgakov in which is the key figure, causes a huge interest in the writer's personality. His work is constantly screened, and literary works are hotly debated. The work "Master and Margarita" does not leave anyone indifferent, forcing to treat yourself or not, or well.
1940 is the end of the writer's way.
Nervous exhaustion gave rise to hypertensive nephrosclerosis, which sent Bulgakov to bed. Elena could not tear it from the paws of the disease, in March 1940 the writer was gone, and he predicted his departure long before the illness. In the history of his life there is such a fact: at the grave of Gogol on the Monastery Cemetery there was a stone, nicknamed because of the similarity with the Jerusalem mountain Golgotha. When Gogol was reburied to another place, a bust was installed on his grave, and later his wife installed Bulgus on the grave of Bulgakov. And then the phrase of the writer, which he addressed to Gogol in a dream, when he came to him for the third time is recalled: "Teacher, cover me with your greatcoat."Bulgakov's biography, the life and work of the great writer constantly evokes a reader's interest, which in time only intensifies, fueled by a craving for mysticism and the unknown.