Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov is a famous Russian writer, whose life is shrouded in mysterious mysticism and a halo of secrets. A native of the Kiev professor's family, he was born on May 15, 1891, and received his name in honor of the archangel Michael, the keeper of the city of Kiev.The young man began to write from an early age, although many biographers say the opposite, calling the starting point 30 years of age. As the brief biography tells, Bulgakov at a young age loved to read, absorbed the received information like a sponge and remembered much of what was read. Vera, the elder sister, claimed that his first work, Adventures of Svetlana, Misha wrote at the age of seven, and at 9 years old he mastered The Cathedral of Our Lady of Paris (V. Hugo). In the Alexander Gymnasium (one of the best in Kiev), Bulgakov fully showed his talents during his studies: he painted caricatures, wrote poems, played the piano, sang and was engaged in writing.
So who is he, Bulgakov?
The biography (the photo of the writer can be seen below) of Mikhail Afanasyevich is further continued by his studies at the medical faculty of Kiev University. After graduation in 1914, Bulgakov worked as a doctor in Saratov, and from the beginning of World War I, in front-line hospitals under the supervision of experienced military surgeons. The writer Bulgakov, whose biography is full of impressions of wartime and medical practice, wrote a series of stories “Notes of a young doctor”, and the fatal case that brought him together with a boy who had diphtheria completely turned the life of a genius.Saving the child by sucking mouth through a tube of diphtheria films from his throat, Bulgakov became infected. Introduced anti-diphtheria serum caused a severe allergic reaction, manifested unbearable itching and a terrible rash on the body. Morphine injection helped alleviate the pain, and repeated injections helped to cope with allergies, at the same time causing habituation to the "saving" drug. The resulting drug addiction destroyed everything on the life path of Bulgakov, ruthlessly taking away his spiritual and physical health, awarding the writer panic fear and severe depression, driving him to violent insanity. Tatiana Nikolayevna’s wife, trying to save her husband, instead of morphine, injected him with distilled water, causing the latter to be extremely fragile.
Gogol: come or not?
It was during this period that Bulgakov met with Gogol, the first of three. In one of the painful attacks in the rented housing of Bulgakov, Nikolai Vasilyevich appeared, who quickly entered Mikhail Afanasyevich’s apartment, looked at him with a mad look and threatened him with a finger. From that day, a truly miraculous salvation from the terrible addiction of Bulgakov, which did not understand whether the arrival of Gogol was a dream or a reality, occurred. This story the writer later told in the work "Morphine".
Mikhail Bulgakov, whose biography and work were closely intertwined, was successful in his personal life and was married three times. According to the prophecy of the Kiev gypsy, at which the writer laughed at one time, he would get three wives in life: one from God, the second from people, and the third from the devil. After a miraculous recovery, Mikhail Afanasyevich discovered private practice and at the same time began to engage in writing.Tatiana Lappa went with her husband everywhere, helping him in his medical activities and in the incredible healing of his fatal attachment to the drug. The First World War and the Civil War shook Bulgakov around the country mercilessly: mobilization by Petliurists, escape, mobilization by Denikinists, typhus, cessation of medical practice, poverty, hunger. And always there was she - faithful Tasia.
Bulgakov: a brief biography and creativity
From 1919 to 1921 the writer lived in Vladikavkaz; it was there that he stopped practicing medicine and began his professional work in literary activities, working as a journalist in local newspapers. There were written for the theater comedy "Self-defense" (the production of which was successful), as well as the plays "The Clay Grooms" and "The Paris Communards", the latter being recommended by Glavpolitprosvet to staging in Moscow theaters.
Bulgakov managed to get to Moscow only in 1921. At first he grabbed at any job, trying to feed himself and his wife; he did writing at night. And he did it: Bulgakov began to print! His stories and satires were on many pages of newspapers and magazines. The actions of such works as “Heart of a Dog”, “Fatal Eggs” are connected with Moscow.
Creativity Mikhail Bulgakov
The novel “White Guard” described the tragedy of the civil war, played out in Kiev - the writer's hometown, and the work shows the tragedy of the people as a whole and in the context of a single Turbins family - people with a high sense of honor and dignity. Bulgakov, whose creative biography is rich in bright life moments that formed the basis of his works, quite similarly described the Kiev House of his youth in the novel “The White Guard”. The people who lived there some time later broke down all the walls trying in vain to find the treasure described in the work. According to the novel “White Guard” the play “Days of the Turbins” was written, the play staged on it was a huge success with the audience.
Love Belozerskaya - a bright spot on a gray background of ordinary Moscow life, became the second wife of the writer. Muscovite, she helped her husband in everything: she distributed manuscripts by editorial staff, helped overcome provincial shyness, selected materials for his creations. It was with its help that the plays “Kabala the Holy One” and “Run” were created.
Difficult period, rejection
In the late 1920s, Bulgakov was attacked by literary critics. His works were evaluated negatively, they were no longer published, the plays were removed from the repertoire. In March 1930, exhausted and tattered, Bulgakov, who found himself on the verge of poverty, addressed Stalin with a letter about the possibility of earning money in the theater or leaving the USSR. A month later, Stalin personally called the writer, allowing him to work. An assistant director at the Moscow Art Theater, who worked as a translator and writer for the libretto and occasionally played in performances — that was what Bulgakov had to be content with at such a difficult time for himself.
The outlet for him was the opera Faust, to which he often went to the Bolshoi Theater; this spectacle acted on him somehow especially, raising his spirits. The next trip to your favorite performance ended in the worst depression. This was connected with the play “Batum” written by him, in which the central figure was the young Stalin, and the writer recognized himself as Faust, who sold his soul to the devil.
Is she Margarita?
Elena Shilovskaya - the third love of the writer. A brief biography (Bulgakov again in the halo of mysticism) tells us that once, in the cold of autumn of 1927, the writer walked the streets of Moscow, and suddenly a sharp-nosed little man flew at him, painfully resembling an apartment guest during the period of Bulgakov’s fascination with morphine. Gogol (and this, apparently, was he) looked into Mikhail Afanasyevich’s eyes and pointed to one of the houses located nearby. It was there that Elena Sergeevna lived.
At one of the parties where they met, she asked Mikhail to tie a ribbon on her sleeve, and thus “tied” him to her. The wife of General Shilovsky, Elena long rushed between the two men, until her husband finally agreed to a divorce. It was with the advent of Helena Bulgakov that he zealously began to continue writing his famous novel Master and Margarita, begun in 1929. Elena helped him in everything: she led the house, printed manuscripts, wrote under dictation, realizing that only future generations would be able to read Bulgakov. Bulgakov created his brainchild, a novel about the Master and the secret of his beloved, about Christ and the devil, in conditions of complete lack of money and hopelessness. Elena fell in love with this creature, recognizing herself in Margarita, realizing that this is the main book in the life of the writer.
The real prototype of the cat Behemoth
By the way, the famous assistant of Woland had a real prototype, which was a black dog by Mikhail Afanasyevich, nicknamed Behemoth, very clever for an ordinary animal. There was such a case: when celebrating the New Year, the dog barked twelve times during the chiming clock, although no one taught it to it. This interesting story has kept a brief biography.
During this period, Bulgakov was already struck by a deadly disease, so part of the chapters from the novel he dictated to his wife, Elena. A month before his death, he finished work on his most famous work, which many read. It was after this novel was released that Bulgakov’s abilities were otherworldly, otherwise how could he so accurately describe the devil himself and his retinue?
The heroes of the works of Bulgakov tend to charm, forcing himself to fall in love and feel the special charm of undisclosed thought. His brief biography, Bulgakov in which is a key figure, is of great interest to the personality of the writer. His works are constantly screened, and literary works are hotly debated. The work “The Master and Margarita” does not leave anyone indifferent, forcing them to treat themselves either badly or well.
1940 - the end of the writer's journey
Nervous exhaustion gave rise to hypertensive nephrosclerosis, which chained Bulgakov to bed. Helen was unable to wrest it from the clutches of the disease, in March 1940 the writer was gone, and he predicted her departure long before the illness. In the history of his life there is such a fact: on the grave of Gogol at the Monastery Cemetery there was a stone, nicknamed because of its similarity with the Jerusalem Mount Golgotha. When Gogol was reburied to another place, a bust was placed on his grave, and the stone was later installed on the grave of Bulgakov by his wife. And here I recall the phrase of the writer whom he addressed to Gogol in a dream, when he came to him for the third time: “Teacher, cover me with your greatcoat”.The biography of Bulgakov, the life and work of the great writer constantly evoke reader interest, which over time is only strengthened, fueled by mysticism and the unknown.