Many people are perplexed to hear that they have found cytomegalovirus (CMV). What is it? How did it penetrate the body? What are the ways to deal with it? Do not despair. CMV will not cause harm if a person has a normally functioning immune system. It can be dangerous only for pregnant women. Therefore, until today, no special treatment has been developed. And in response to a question, TSMV - what is it and how to deal with it, the doctor will recommend strengthening immunity. Consider that the virus represents itself.
TSMV - what is it?
The study of the virus began only in the middle of the 20th century. It was then that the scientists faced the question: "TSMV - what is it?" Evaluating the amount of violations that the virus provokes in the body, doctors gave him a big name. Literally it is translated as "a great poison that destroys the cage."
And yet, TSMV - what is it? Pathology is classified as herpes. It belongs to type 5 infection. Such a virus is very common. The number of infected he leads. Statistics show that CMV is found in 4 out of 5 adults and almost every second baby.
The virus is completely safe for a healthy person. But to a patient with weak immunity, he poses a mortal threat. That is why scientists continue to actively explore it today: TSMV - what is it, how to get rid of it. But, unfortunately, they are not ready to give answers to these questions. After all, until now there is no detailed mechanics of the course of the disease. And not a single medicine has been found that provides a complete cure.
The optimal environment for the life of the virus are body fluids. Often this is saliva. But at the same time he is able to penetrate into any organ, tissue.
Its destructive effect can affect:
The risk group includes people:
- Individuals prone to the manifestation of any kind of herpes.
- Patients suffering from immunodeficiency.
Transmission routes of CMV
The source of infection is a sick person. In this case, the virus is contained in a variety of secrets:
This allows you to understand how a person becomes infected with a virus. Infection can occur in the following ways:
- airborne droplets;
- at a kiss;
- during blood transfusion;
- intrauterine infection;
- at thoracal feeding;
- in the process of passing the baby through the birth canal.
Simple communication with a human carrier of the virus rarely leads to infection. The air-drop path is not the most common way of infection. Most often, the virus enters the body of a healthy person during a kiss or an intimate connection.
Once infected, the patient remains forever a carrier of the virus. At the same time, antibodies form in his body.
Categories of infected people
The pathology is quite diverse and depends mainly on the immune system. Therefore, considering CMV (what it is, the symptoms of the disease), it is necessary to take this factor into account.
Doctors distinguish the following categories of patients:
- People with normal immunity.
- Infants in whom congenital cytomegal is diagnosed.
- Persons suffering from impaired functioning of the immune system.
Each group differs in its symptoms and features of the course of the disease.
The flow of disease in a healthy person
Often, the pathology resembles the usual catarrhal disease. But cytomegaly, unlike SARS, takes a longer period - 4-6 weeks.
- elevated temperature;
- swelling of the pharynx;
- enlargement of lymph nodes, liver, spleen;
- muscle pain;
- skin rash, inflammation of the joints.
Vividly characterizes CMV - what is it - a photo posted in this article.
Some people may have symptoms that resemble mononucleosis. However, for patients with normal immunity, this phenomenon is a rarity. With mononucleosis-like syndrome the following symptoms are observed:
There are such manifestations after the moment of infection on the 20-60 days. The course of the pathology usually lasts about 2-6 weeks. Often the disease ends with a complete cure. In the human body, special antibodies are produced.
Sometimes an infection can manifest as an inflammation of the urogenital system. But such features of the course of the disease for a healthy person - a rarity. In men, the urethra can be affected. Sometimes the infection covers the tissues of the testicles.
It is important to understand if it is detected by CMV, what it is for women. Infection can lead to erosion of the cervix, provoke inflammation of the ovaries, vagina. With such a course of the disease, the risk of infecting the baby in utero or during childbirth is very high.
Symptomatic of people with low immunity
This category includes:
- Persons with HIV status are positive.
- Patients after chemotherapy.
- Persons taking immunosuppressants.
- Patients after organ transplantation or who underwent serious surgeries.
- People on hemodialysis.
What is CMV for this population group? This, as a rule, acute course of the disease and the presence of serious complications. With reduced immunity, the virus damages and destroys the tissues of the spleen, liver, adrenal gland, kidneys. The stomach and pancreas suffer.
External manifestations of the disease often resemble the symptoms of pneumonia or ulcers. In such patients, lymph nodes increase. The body sharply reduces the content of platelets.
The course of the disease is often accompanied by the following complications:
- lesions of various internal organs.
Sometimes the infection spreads throughout the body. Characteristic symptoms of this form are:
- lesions of the eyes, digestive system, lungs;
- destruction of the tissues of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, adrenals;
- inflammation of the brain (often leads to death).
Sometimes the mother of a newborn crumbs hears a "verdict" - TSMV. What is this in a child? Unfortunately, we are talking about congenital pathology. Most often, the baby is infected from the mother who is carrying CMV in active form during pregnancy.
It is difficult to predict how the pathology will affect a baby. This largely depends on the period of pregnancy, in which the woman suffered an infection. Sometimes crumbs, protected by maternal antibodies, easily tolerate it. But very often the symptomatology shows, characterizing congenital CMV, that this is a child's severe pathology.
The main signs of the disease are:
- prematurity, low weight, retardation of development in the womb;
- disturbances of the respiratory system;
- hepatitis, enlarged spleen, liver;
- symptoms of cardiovascular failure;
- hemorrhagic rash;
- prolonged, vivid jaundice;
- microcephaly, chorioretinitis, neurological disorders;
- thrombocytopenia, anemia;
- interstitial nephritis.
Such manifestations are felt in the first 3-5 weeks from the moment of birth. Severe leakage often leads to death. Sometimes a child may remain disabled.
CMV and pregnancy
A big role is played, at what time the woman was sick. It is known that an infection transferred to 12 weeks, very often leads to miscarriage. Such babies just do not survive.
If a woman is infected at a later date, it is usually not scary. After all, the baby has already formed the circle of blood circulation.
It is best if the woman has had the infection before conception. In this case, the crumb will be reliably protected by maternal antibodies.
Modern doctors well understand, if it is a question of TSMV, what is it at pregnancy. Therefore, a test for the virus is included in the standard analysis package. This allows you to exclude the risk of developing pathology with a planned pregnancy.
Diagnosis of the virus
This is a very laborious process. After all, the symptoms are often blurred. The patient, who has a clinical picture resembling this infection, the doctor will recommend taking an analysis of CMV. What is it? This definition is a laboratory way of having a virus in the body.
As a rule, one analysis is not enough. Therefore, several laboratory studies are required. They allow to determine not only the presence of the virus, but also the stage of infection.
So, we will consider, if doctors suspect ЦМВ, what is this the analysis, allowing to diagnose a pathology?
The following studies are used to confirm the disease:
- PCR method. This is a survey of various discharges of a person: saliva, blood, breast milk, vaginal secretions. This method allows to confirm the presence of a pathogen in the blood. However, it is impossible to determine the activity of the virus with the help of this study.
- EIA-method. The examination allows obtaining a more complete characterization of the processes occurring in the body. For this method, the patient will need to take blood from the vein. According to this analysis, the presence of antibodies IgG or IgM is determined. In a person who has recovered from CMV for a long time, the first species will be found in the blood. Such antibodies protect the body from re-infection. The presence of IgM in the blood indicates an active phase of the disease.
Treatment of the disease
All of the above allows you to perfectly imagine if it is found in the body of CMV - what is it.
Treatment completely depends on the state of health. Thus, doctors believe:
- Individuals with strong immunity, treatment is not needed.
- People who have poor health, it is vital to fight with pathology.
It is impossible to completely recover from CMV. A person who once suffered an infection remains a carrier of the virus forever.
It is strictly forbidden to select drugs independently for the fight against pathology. Each patient has an individual disease. The complex of necessary medicines is selected on the basis of the patient's tests.
Medical therapy combines two directions:
- Maximum destruction of the virus.
- Support the immune system and stimulate its protective functions.
To combat CMV, the following antiviral drugs are used:
These drugs are toxic. In addition, they have contraindications and often lead to unpleasant side effects. Self-medication with the above mentioned means is strictly prohibited. Wrong choice of a medicine can lead to the opposite effect. The immune system can not cope with this additional burden. As a result, it will be even more vulnerable to the virus.
In some patients, a doctor may prescribe immunoglobulins. These are medicines that are made from human blood. They contain antibodies that can resist infection. Such drugs are administered intravenously. Manipulation takes place under the compulsory supervision of a health worker. In this case, each injection is carried out according to the schedule compiled by the doctor.
Today this method is quite effective. However, the full picture of the effects of these medications on the body has not yet been studied. Therefore, before the injections are prescribed, the patient is recommended to undergo a complete examination.
Treatment with immunoglobulin is contraindicated in the following conditions:
- the presence of a tendency to allergic reactions;
- pregnancy, breast-feeding;
- kidney disease.
In addition, these drugs can provoke unwanted reactions:
- occurrence of dyspnea;
- trouble urinating;
- symptoms of colds, viral pathologies;
- sharp weight gain;
- nausea, vomiting;
- tear in the eyes in bright light.
If there is such a symptomatology, the doctor will immediately correct the treatment.
Infants are prescribed specific and nonspecific immunoglobulins for the control of congenital pathology:
To the aid of antiviral medicines "Acyclovir", "Ganciclovir", "Foscarnetu" are used extremely rarely. Because such drugs are very toxic to the baby.
Therapies include immunomodulators:
Their action is directed to the activation of the newborn's own immunity.
A significant role is played by symptomatic treatment. In other words, with hyperthermia, the baby is prescribed antipyretic agents. If the crumb causes seizures, then the treatment includes anticonvulsant medications.
Prevention of disease
The most important measure that allows to avoid CMV infection, doctors consider protected sex, if the partner is not permanent.
In addition, it is recommended to avoid kissing with those individuals who are symptomatic of any viral infection. It can be weakness, sore throat, fever, runny nose.
It is especially important to follow this recommendation to pregnant women. After all, they are responsible for the future of the baby. Therefore, should be as cautious as possible.
All of the above recommendations will avoid infection. But if the disease has occurred, what helps to cope with the pathology? Of course, this is strong immunity.
Therefore, it is necessary to direct all its efforts to promote health. In this case, prevention consists of methods known since childhood:
- hardening of the body;
- proper nutrition, enriched with vitamins;
- playing sports;
- hygiene compliance.
CMV is a large and unwieldy virus - a representative of herpes. It specifically affects the cell, filling it with cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions. Treatment schemes that allow you to get rid of it do not exist. Therapy is purely individual and depends on the human body. Rather from his immune system. Therefore, the most important recommendation is the right lifestyle and health promotion.