Cervicitis is a gynecological disease of nature, characterized by inflammation of the cervix. Most often this problem faced by the women in the ages of 18 and approximately 45 years old, living an active sex life.
A few words about the anatomy
The cervix is a muscular organ that located between the vagina and the uterus. It covers the mucous membrane. In the cervix is constantly being produced under the secret influence of sex hormones. During pregnancy it has a function of holding the fetus and save it. Closer to delivery the cervix begins to soften and open up, giving baby the opportunity to get acquainted with the surrounding world.
What is cervicitis?
Cervicitis the cervix is an inflammatory disease that develops in the body. The main cause considered a variety of infections of the genitourinary system (gonorrhoea, mycoplasmosis, etc.).
The General notion of "cervicitis" combines two of the pathological process: endocervicitis and ectocervical. In the former case there is lesion of the mucosa of the cervical canal, while the second suffers the cervix.
Cervicitis, or rather, its symptoms, familiar to 50% of women on our planet. Gynecologists believe the inflammatory process is one of the most common among all gynecologic diseases nature.
Why the infection tends to get it in the cervical canal? The fact is that this area is covered with a special slime, which is part of the microflora of the uterine cavity. Of her gradually formed a tube, which is a kind of barrier between the vagina and the uterus. When exposed to certain factors its protective function is destroyed, opening the entrance for pathogenic organisms. As a result of developing cervicitis of the cervix.
Types and forms of the disease
Depending on the type of course of cervicitis there are acute and chronic forms. You will examine each option in more detail.
- The acute course is characterized by the recent penetration of the infection and its active development. The disease is accompanied by severe pain in the lower stomach area, fever. Sometimes the patient noted discomfort with intimacy and difficulty during urination. Diagnostic examination reveals slight swelling and redness in the area where the cervix.
- The infection in chronic form is characterized blurred manifestations. Symptoms of the disease there may be aching pain in the abdomen, characteristic of the selection. If the infection is accompanied by genital infections may cause itching and burning in the vagina. The current long-term inflammation may lead to irreversible effects (cancer, formation of adhesions and scarring). Cervix with chronic cervicitis is a very vulnerable place.
Depending on the cause of the disease, or rather, his agents, we distinguish the following types of pathological process:
- Purulent. This form of the disease occurs on the background of STIs, due to the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms in different layers of the mucous membrane of the cervix. The clinical picture is characterized by the abundant discharge with admixtures of pus, uterine bleeding, low-grade temperature.
- Virus. The disease is characterized by pronounced clinical picture. Its development promotes penetration into the body of the virus (HPV, HSV, HIV). Pathology is accompanied by discomfort during urination, severe itching and burning in the vaginal area.
- Bacterial. The emergence of this type of infection is often preceded by bacterial vaginosis, gonorrhea or trichomoniasis.
- Candida. This disorder is due to active parasitism of pathogens of the genus Candida. Most often the disease occurs due to untreated thrush in a timely manner.
- Diffuse. The pathology is characterized by the distribution over the entire surface of the vagina.
- Focal. This form refers to the local destruction of certain areas of the lining of the channel.
- Atrophic. The disease occurs on the background of chronic cervicitis and is characterized by gradual thinning of the tissues of the cervix. The lack of adequate treatment entails a violation of urination.
As a rule, the infection of the cervix detected by routine physical examination. Women often seek the advice of a gynecologist suspected another disease, similar in its symptoms. To avoid the occurrence of chronic forms of pathology is possible with timely diagnosis and proper treatment.
Etiology of cervicitis
The main cause of this disease is infection. Cervicitis can provoke a variety of viruses and bacteria. Sometimes the pathology develops as a result of life activity of microorganisms that are directly transmitted through sexual contact.
What factors contribute to the emergence of the disease?
- Birth trauma.
- The radiative forcing.
- Tumors of a malignant nature.
- Interruption of pregnancy followed by curettage.
- Hormonal disturbance.
A special role in the pathology belongs to immunity. If the body's defenses are weakened, the probability of infection increases significantly.
What are the symptoms of cervicitis?
The mild form of the disease, the woman may not notice any changes in your body. The first signs of cervicitis of the cervix occur within a few days after the end of menstruation. However, many women prefer not to pay attention to the intensity change of the vaginal secretions, thus ignoring the disease. To the treatment of cervicitis, it is important to begin at the initial stage of its development. In this case, the forecast of a quick recovery is most favorable.
Cervicitis is usually manifested by the following symptoms:
- Abundant vaginal discharge (a viscous, turbid, purulent) with a characteristic odor.
- Nagging pain in the lower stomach area.
- Itching and burning in the vaginal area.
- Painful discomfort during intimacy.
- A slight increase in temperature.
Untreated the infection becomes chronic. It is quite difficult to identify because clinical symptoms are mild.
Cervicitis and pregnancy
The cervicitis of the cervix during pregnancy can result in unpleasant consequences, not only for expectant mothers but also for her baby. The disease is often a cause of miscarriage and premature birth. Another serious complication is considered purulent lesion of the skin and internal organs of the child in the very first days of his life.
The disease is especially dangerous in the early stages of pregnancy if associated with other infectious processes. In the first trimester is usually diagnosed infection of the fetus. This can lead to the most unexpected consequences, beginning in utero and ending with the death of congenital deformities.
Pregnant women usually prescribe antiviral and antibacterial agents. The question of the preservation of the fetus is decided individually after screening.
Diagnosis of the disease
To determine the presence of pathology is not possible, as its symptoms are not specific. That is why the appearance of the primary symptoms of the disease, you must contact your gynecologist who after a complete examination can confirm the disease and prescribe an appropriate treatment. The doctor usually uses the following diagnostic procedures:
- Inspection through gynecological mirrors.
- General smear on the flora.
- PCR diagnostics.
- Cytological examination of the smear.
- Bacterial culture of microflora with the definition of sensitivity to antibiotics.
All these studies are required to identify the causative agent, determine the degree of inflammation and detection of comorbidities. Very often, the doctor makes a diagnosis of "cervicitis" and "cervical erosion" at the same time.
How to prepare for the survey?
To obtain the most reliable results of the tests, it is important to properly prepare for the upcoming visit to the gynecologist.
First, avoid sexual intercourse for two days prior to the survey. In addition, you need to avoid douching and the use of any means specially designed for intimate hygiene.
If you use vaginal sprays or candles, it is important to limit their use and be sure to inform the gynecologist.
Hygiene of the genitals is better spent in the evening, and just before the examination - only with warm water. In the morning, there is no need to wash it.
Initially it is necessary to identify and eliminate factors that could be devoted to the development of cervicitis of the cervix. The symptoms indicating an STI, should alert the physician. In this case, the course of treatment are both partners.
Tactics of treatment of cervicitis depends exclusively on its causes. In the case of the infectious nature of the disease is prescribed Antibacterials (macrolides and chinolone). The choice of a particular drug depends on sensitivity of the pathogen. Cervicitis viral origin especially difficult therapy. Patients usually administered immunoglobulin and antiviral medications ("he needs therapy with valtrex", "Acyclovir").
After the reduction of exacerbation is possible to use local means of treatment. Special the effectiveness of different creams and candles ("Terzian"). Mucous of the vagina and cervix should be treated with a silver nitrate solution.
In advanced cases, when the lining of the uterus atrophic changes are present, doctors recommend hormone therapy ("Ovestin"). This treatment helps to restore skin cells and normalization of the vaginal flora.
To assess the effectiveness of therapy is test colposcopy and a number of laboratory tests.
When needed surgical intervention?
The chronic course of the disease, when conservative treatment is ineffective, the gynecologist can offer one of the options for surgical intervention (laser, diathermocoagulation, cryotherapy).
The help of medicine
To treat cervicitis cervix can be at home, but before starting the course of treatment is necessary to inform the gynecologist. Use the recipes healers is relevant only in combination with medicaments that are prescribed by the doctor.
The most popular variants of folk therapy:
- In equal proportions should take the fruits of raspberry, mugwort, birch leaves, St. John's wort, mint. The resulting mixture should be crushed, to prepare a medicinal decoction takes just 5 Herbs, pour a glass of boiling water and put just a few minutes in a water bath. The resulting broth is recommended to insist about an hour, then it should be filtered. Take 3 times a day, about a third of a Cup.
- In equal proportions should take the birch leaves, grass motherwort, calendula flowers, thyme, dandelion roots, chop and mix thoroughly. Then 10 g. of the mixture should pour 500 ml of water and put to languish. The decoction should strain and cool. Solution for irrigation is ready.
Complications and consequences
With timely treatment prognosis in most cases favorable. The chronic form of the disease requires the use of potent drugs, the therapy can last several months.
What happens if you refuse treatment of cervicitis cervical symptoms to ignore and not to seek help from a doctor?
The most common complications of this disease include the following:
- The transformation of cell structures in a malignant form.
- Cervical ectopia of the cervix (chronic cervicitis, this complication occurs very often).
- The formation of polyps in the uterine cavity.
- The development of infection in the genitourinary system.
- Diseases of the inflammatory nature of the pelvic organs.
How to prevent the development of cervicitis of the cervix? Photos of this pathology terrified many representatives of the beautiful half of humanity. Even worse consequences to which it might lead. That is why many are interested in prevention of this disease.
First and foremost, doctors recommend to observe elementary rules of hygiene. We should not forget the timely change of underwear and hygiene products during menstruation.
To prevent STIs you need to use contraception, and to choose the best barrier options (condoms). If you experience the symptoms indicating diseases of the genital organs, it is important to consult a doctor and undergo treatment.
In this article, we talked about the difference between therapy cervicitis, cervical (treatment). Reviews about medical option there are ambiguous. Many patients talk about fast recovery and no side effects from the drugs. However, there are negative reviews. Most of them are associated with the duration of therapy. As the practice of medicine, the more a woman puts treatment and a visit to the gynecologist, the higher the likelihood of complications and increase the life of the medication.