The composition of the Central economic area are the following: Orel, Tver, Bryansk, Smolensk, Kaluga, Tula, Ryazan, Moscow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Ivanovo region, and also Moscow. Its total length is 485.1 to thousand sq. km.
Central economic region has a relatively advantageous geographical and economic position. It is located at the crossroads of land roads and waterways, which contributed many years to the rapprochement of the Russian lands, the development of various types of economic relations and trade. Central economic region borders with Ukraine and Belarus, and from Russian regions – Northern, North-Western, Volga, Volga-Vyatka and Central-black earth area. With them are actively developing economic relations. Moscow, capital of Russia, located on the territory of the cehr. This district played a leading role among all other economic regions of our country.
Are relatively favorable natural conditions for life and economic activities of people. This ensures the development Central economic district. Here a temperate continental climate, which contributes to running the household, making the maximum use of social and industrial objects. Conditions allow the cultivation of technical and grain crops, vegetables, potatoes, gardening, and to develop different of the livestock industry.
The soils of the area
Varies geographically in this region climatic environment. The best conditions are in the southern regions. In the Orel and Tula have large areas of forest-steppe with a predominance of leached and podzolized chernozems.
Widely distributed in the Central part of the area of dark gray soil, gray and gray forest. If we talk about the North (Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo and Tver regions), the soil is mostly sod-podzol, which require significant reclamation works (anti-erosion measures, liming acid soils, draining wetlands), as well as fertilizer to improve fertility. The famous rivers originate within the tser – Dnepr, the Western Dvina, Volga and others.
Central economic region is in our country a special place in terms of population, diversity of shape and types of settlements number of towns and cities. There are about 30.3 million people, or almost 21% of the population. The population density is 62.6 persons per km 2. Central economic region is rich populous towns and villages. The population density in the North it is 15-20 persons/km 2. and in the South and the West – 50-70 persons per km 2. Kostroma region is the least densely populated and most – Moscow. 82,5% is the proportion living in cities, if we consider the Central economic district. The population of villages is around 17%. This is a relatively small share of the total. The main reason for the reduction in the number of residents of the villages, the outflow of them in the city. In Tula, Vladimir, Ivanovo region, and also in the suburbs the population is not associated in any way with agriculture, accounts for a significant proportion of residents.
Central Russia includes many large clusters of settlements, and single towns and cities. In the Moscow Metropolitan area today is home to about half of the population of the district. To other major Metropolitan areas include Yaroslavl and Tula. The versatility, favorable transport conditions, geographic proximity, and also the special role of industrial cities were important reasons for the establishment of strong ties between them. Big cities are characterized by significant rates of growth. This is due to the fact that here are concentrated the industry, there is a developed social infrastructure. Ancient cities also dominate the industrial and administrative centers. This, for example, Kolomna, Malin, Vladimir, Ryazan, Smolensk.
It should be noted among the biological resources of the forest reserves, the majority of which are coniferous species. The Northern part of the district is characterized by the largest forest cover, particularly Tver and Kostroma region. Forest to the South is depleted. They are mostly recreational, water conservation and ecological value. Timber reserves do not meet the needs of local residents. A substantial part of the lumber and forest raw materials are imported from the Volga-Vyatka, North and other regions. Inadequate use of local forest wastes and substandard raw materials.
Fuel and energy resources
Central region of Russia fuel and energy resources of the poor. Suburban pool presented lignite fuel reserves. It is located on the territory of the Smolensk, Tver, Ryazan, Tula and Kaluga regions. Coal reserves amount to 4.4 billion tons up to 60 m depth. Mainly mine extraction. Suburban energy coals of low quality. They have low calorie content, they mnogozalny contain in its composition of sulfur, and waterlogged, which means low transportability. However, for electricity of the area they are important.
But the peat resources of the Central region of Russia is rich. About 35 billion cubic meters the amount of raw peat reserves. In the Tver, Ivanovo, Kostroma, Moscow and Yaroslavl regions are industrial peatlands. A great effect would give the deep chemical recycling of the raw materials in the areas of concentration.
Small reserves of hydropower. They are mainly concentrated in the Ryazan, Kostroma and Tver regions, where they have developed hydrographic network. System of reservoirs located on the Oka, the Volga and other rivers. But because of backward technology and high water Central Russia is experiencing certain difficulties with the water supply. In the Yaroslavl region was recently proven significant oil and gas area, but still far from production. Other difficulties included the importation of food and the crisis of machine-building production. This is a serious problem of the Central economic region, which need to be solved as quickly as possible.
Other raw materials
The management district is focused mainly on imported oil, fuel oil and gas in the Volga region, Western Siberia and the North. In tser from mineral raw materials, there are several iron ore deposits (Orel, Tula region). Only Tula ore are of commercial value. Central economic region, whose characteristics we are interested in, has minor reserves of phosphate in the Moscow and Bryansk regions. He provided a variety of construction materials. Marls, limestones, cement raw materials are the resources of the Central economic region, which are available in the Moscow, Bryansk, Orel and Ryazan regions. Rich in gypsum Kaluga and Tula. In some places there are ceramic and glazing clay, sand.
The Central economic district: industry
In this area, formed a complex industrial complex of manufacturing and industries. Moscow is a major industrial centre. A large proportion of products of CES, as well as the whole country has the production of capital. Other major cities of the Central economic district industry centres – Vladimir, Tver, Bryansk, Tula, Yaroslavl, Smolensk, etc.
It should be noted that Metalworking and mechanical engineering (29% of total industrial production of the area) by number of employed persons and commercial products take the first place in our country. Goods are produced in a wide range, often of high quality. They are in demand in the markets of this district and other regions of Russia, exported.
Central economic region, whose characteristics are presented in this article focuses primarily on the production of accurate and complex products, which does not require large expenditures of energy, fuel and raw materials. So the most important sectors remain electronic, radio, instrument, electrical, and manufacturing controls and automation, etc.
The main subjects of the Central economic district involved in these types of industry: Moscow, Moscow, Tula, Yaroslavl, Orel, Vladimir, Kaluga, Smolensk and Ryazan. Instrumental and machine-tool industry has received great development in Moscow (production of tools, complex automatic lines and machines), Moscow region (Dmitrov, Yegoryevsk, Kolomna), in Ryazan (forging heavy equipment), Ivanovo, Sasovo and in the town of Sukhinichi.
Stands out in the district industry manufacturing transport machinery: river vessels, cars, locomotives, cars and etc. Chemical industry is 7% of the total industrial output of the region. The industry is focused on large production capacity ecrc, qualified personnel and scientific base to consumers inside the area, and partly on local raw materials (brown coal, phosphorites, rock salt). We are interested in the region for the development of various types of chemical industry is the leader among others. Here is about 10% of mineral fertilizers of Russia: Voskresensk (superphosphate, phosphoric flour), in the Tula and Bryansk regions (nitrogen fertilizer).
As for the organic synthesis chemistry, it may be noted Yaroslavl, Efremov (plastics, rubber), Moscow (bus), Vladimir (perfumes, paints). Shortage of energy, water, raw materials, as well as by complex ecological conditions constrained the development of the chemical industry of the area.
Another important specialization of the Central economic region is a large petrochemical and oil-refining industry (Ryazan, Yaroslavl, Moscow). He is a leader in production of chemical fibers in Russia (Tver, Ryazan, Serpukhov).
However, not only these industries are characterized by the Central Economic District. Its industry, both heavy and light, is well developed. Let's talk about the latter.
9% of the total production in the region is light industry. This is 87% of the fabrics produced in our country. The largest and its oldest industry is the textile. 43% silk, 58% wool, 78% linen, 83% cotton fabrics Russia is produced here.
Developed in the area of cotton, silk, linen, woolen and Shoe industries – Moscow, Ivanovo, Kostroma, Tver, Noginsk, Moscow oblast. In Moscow and the town of Chekhov, Moscow region, and also in Vladimir, Yaroslavl and Tver developed printing industry.
13% of total production of this area is power generation. In the economy of the region the basic role is played by the highly developed industry. The fuel industry also has a certain value. Tser is one of the biggest Russian producers of heat and electricity. Powerful thermal power station is situated in the Metropolitan area. As fuel they use fuel oil and natural gas, sometimes coal. The Shatura and Kashira GRES operate on natural gas. In the Tula region on the coals mined in the suburban swimming pool, are Shchekino, Cherepetskaya, Novomoskovskaya GRES. The role of small hydropower in the area.
Agribusiness here has mostly natural character. It accounts for just 2.3% of GRP of the region. He is actively developing. It is possible to allocate the following areas of agriculture: flax (Smolensk, Tver, Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Kaluga, Ivanovo region), grain (Bryansk, Ryazan, Tula, Orel region), potatoes and vegetables, sugar beet, milk, animal (Bryansk, Moscow, Ryazan, Tula region).