Accounting in modern form presented as an ordered system of gathering, registration and generalization of information. Data are expressed in monetary terms. They describe the property and obligations of the organization and move them through the continuous documenting ongoing business operations.
The definition above is considered to be the most comprehensive. In this regard, it is fixed at the legislative level and is present in the Federal Law "On Accounting". This concept describes the functions of the system most fully. The first emphasizes the orderliness of accounting. The definition in a concise form reflects the main stages of the process: the collection, recording and summarizing of information. Also clearly defined features of the system that distinguish it from other accounting forms - statistical, operational and others. These signs consist in maintaining strict documentation, process continuity. Indicated in the definition and the main gauge of information - money. And finally, the selected reporting objects.
Goals and objectives of accounting: general information
The main function of the system is the provision of information to internal and external stakeholders in accordance with the law or in accordance with the requirements information. Data that is provided by a private user, should be accurate, timely and sufficient for decision-making to ensure the effective management of the enterprise, evaluation of its activities, planning, inspections, operation in unusual conditions. Information contributes to the correct choice of the organization's policies, forecasting of investment and so on.
Today, the aforementioned Federal Law, as well as the Regulations on Reporting and Accounting in the Russian Federation, are the main documents through which the regulation of the system in question is carried out. They ensure the unity of the methodology for collecting, recording and summarizing information throughout the country. Regulations set the procedure for maintaining documents, preparation and delivery of forms.
The main objectives of accounting
They are formulated in the above regulations. The main objectives of accounting are the following:
- Providing accurate and complete information about the company's business and property status, necessary for internal users of financial statements. The latter, in particular, include managers, members, owners, founders. Data are also provided and external stakeholders. These include lenders, investors and other stakeholders.
- The objectives of accounting include providing information to internal and external users for control over the observance of legislation in the implementation process of enterprise economic activity. Based on these data assessed the feasibility of activities, the presence and movement of property and obligations. The data allow us to analyze the rationality of the use of human, financial and material resources, conformity of their use with established budgets and guidelines.
- The objectives of the accounting (financial) accounting also includes the prevention of negative results of economic activity of the enterprise. Reporting allows you to identify the internal reserves of ensuring sustainability of the organization.
Accounting includes financial and management components. The first is aimed at generating information for third-party users. The rules for maintaining financial accounting are regulated by regulatory and legislative acts. The forms and procedure for reporting are also established. Management accounting is established by the enterprise for internal users. Within its framework, information is used that is used in administration.
Management Reporting System
The objectives of accounting for internal users of the enterprise include:
- Orientation to achieve certain results of activity.
- Providing alternative solutions to the questions posed.
- The choice of the optimal management option and the calculation of the regulatory parameters of its implementation.
- Interpretation of detected deviations from the established performance standards and their analysis.
It should be noted that over time, the tasks of accounting in management have expanded significantly. Additional features include:
- Cost recording and reporting to interested parties. In this case, we are talking about, among other things, the classification, synthesis, publication and clarification of expenditure data to users.
- Determination and assessment of costs in relation to certain products, services (works) or responsibility centers, cost centers.
- Cost analysis and cost management. In this case, it is meant to provide information in such a way that it is suitable for control and planning.
The generation of information about current income and expenses, amounts payable and receivable, status of funding sources is achieved through the implementation of different actions, implementation of techniques and methods of evaluation, documentation, identification. Equally important is the task of accounting. There are a variety of manuals containing illustrations and explanations that contribute to a fuller understanding of the discipline. In particular, for the implementation of certain procedures in practice you can use the methodical manual, which contained some through-the task of accounting set out in two parts. The first describes the General organizational-economic conditions of functioning of the enterprise under a particular tax regime, for example with deduction of imputed income. In this part the solution is to run tasks in accounting processes and business operations. The second part summarizes and sistematizirovat certain provisions of legislative and normative acts on the issues of reporting in a different tax regime, for example, STS. At the end of the two parts formed an accounting and tax reporting.
The practical value of benefits
It consists in the synthesis, systematization and subsequent application of the provisions of a number of legislative and regulatory acts in the field of accounting systems regulation. The manuals allow you to form an idea about the elements of reporting. In turn, this contributes to a deeper understanding of accounting in automated form.
The existing theory and practice of accounting changes its shape in the process of political reform and economic development, within which the economic activities of enterprises take place. Improvements in tax legislation have made it necessary to isolate from the system the appropriate direction - tax reporting. In this regard, today there is a need to use a practical approach in the study of legal norms in the field of accounting for business entities.