Accounting in modern form presented as an ordered system of gathering, registration and generalization of information. Data are expressed in monetary terms. They describe the property and obligations of the organization and move them through the continuous documenting ongoing business operations.
The definition given above is considered to be the most exhaustive. In this regard, it is fixed at the legislative level and is present in the Federal Law "On Accounting". This concept most fully characterizes the functions of the system. First of all, the orderliness of accounting is emphasized. The definition in a concise form also reflects the main stages of the process: the collection, recording and compilation of information. Also, the features of the system that distinguish it from other accounting forms - statistical, operational and other - are clearly defined. These signs consist in the maintenance of strict documentation, the continuity of the process. Specified in the definition and the main measure of information is money. Finally, the reporting objects are highlighted.
Goals and objectives of accounting: general information
The main function of the system is the provision of information to internal and external stakeholders in accordance with the law or in accordance with the requirements information. Data that is provided by a private user, should be accurate, timely and sufficient for decision-making to ensure the effective management of the enterprise, evaluation of its activities, planning, inspections, operation in unusual conditions. Information contributes to the correct choice of the organization's policies, forecasting of investment and so on.
Today, the above-mentioned Federal Law, as well as the Regulations on Reporting and Accounting in the Russian Federation, serve as the main documents through which the system under review is regulated. They provide a unified methodology for collecting, recording and summarizing information throughout the country. Normative acts establish the procedure for maintaining documents, drawing up and delivery of forms.
Main tasks of accounting
They are formulated in the above normative acts. The main tasks of accounting are as follows:
- Providing accurate and complete information about the company's business and property status, necessary for internal users of financial statements. The latter, in particular, include managers, members, owners, founders. Data are also provided and external stakeholders. These include lenders, investors and other stakeholders.
- The objectives of accounting include providing information to internal and external users for control over the observance of legislation in the implementation process of enterprise economic activity. Based on these data assessed the feasibility of activities, the presence and movement of property and obligations. The data allow us to analyze the rationality of the use of human, financial and material resources, conformity of their use with established budgets and guidelines.
- The objectives of the accounting (financial) accounting also includes the prevention of negative results of economic activity of the enterprise. Reporting allows you to identify the internal reserves of ensuring sustainability of the organization.
Accounting includes financial and management components. The first is aimed at generating information for third-party users. The rules for financial accounting are regulated by regulatory and legislative acts. Forms and the order of reporting are also established. Management accounting is established by the enterprise for internal users. In its framework, the information used in administration is formed.
Management accounting system
The tasks of accounting, intended for internal users of the enterprise, include:
- Orientation towards achievement of certain performance results.
- Providing alternative methods for solving the issues raised.
- Selection of the optimal management option and calculation of the regulatory parameters for its implementation.
- Interpretation of detected deviations from established performance standards and their analysis.
It should be noted that accounting tasks in the sphere of management have expanded considerably over time. Additional functions include:
- Registration of costs and reporting to interested parties. In this case, it is, among other things, about the classification, compilation, disclosure and explanation to users of expenditure data.
- Determining and estimating the amount of costs in relation to certain products, services (works) or responsibility centers, places of appearance of costs.
- Analysis of costs and cost management. In this case, we mean the provision of information in such a way that they are suitable for monitoring and planning.
The generation of information about current income and expenses, amounts payable and receivable, status of funding sources is achieved through the implementation of different actions, implementation of techniques and methods of evaluation, documentation, identification. Equally important is the task of accounting. There are a variety of manuals containing illustrations and explanations that contribute to a fuller understanding of the discipline. In particular, for the implementation of certain procedures in practice you can use the methodical manual, which contained some through-the task of accounting set out in two parts. The first describes the General organizational-economic conditions of functioning of the enterprise under a particular tax regime, for example with deduction of imputed income. In this part the solution is to run tasks in accounting processes and business operations. The second part summarizes and sistematizirovat certain provisions of legislative and normative acts on the issues of reporting in a different tax regime, for example, STS. At the end of the two parts formed an accounting and tax reporting.
The practical value of benefits
It consists in the compilation, systematization and subsequent application of the provisions of a number of legislative and regulatory acts in the area of regulation of accounting systems. Benefits allow to form an idea of the elements of reporting. In turn, this contributes to a deeper understanding of the conduct of accounting in an automated form.
The existing theory and practice of accounting change their form in the process of political reforms and economic development, within the framework of which the economic activity of enterprises takes place. Improvement of tax legislation caused the need to separate from the system the appropriate direction - tax reporting. In this regard, today there is a need to use a practical approach in studying legal norms in the sphere of accounting of business entities.