The target audience is one of the most important aspects of marketing activity for any modern company. The presence of a certain group of goods provides an opportunity to concentrate on a certain group of consumers of the market and create an ideal product for them, which can then be sold in the right place and with competent communication.
What is it?
The target audience is an element that defines the boundaries of the company's market, and it is recognized in the process of carrying out specialized marketing research.
In other words, it's a certain group of people who are interested in your product and want to get the benefits of its purchase. It can be a specific consumer segment of the market or a group of several such segments. It is only natural that there are certain characteristics and characteristics of each group, which includes the target audience - this is:
- Geographical location (for example, the product is distributed among residents of Western Europe).
- Socio-demographic situation (for example, women aged 30-40 years with an income above the average, working in business).
- Psychographic characteristics (for example, this product may be in demand among people trying to assert themselves in the surrounding society).
- Behavioral characteristics (for example, certain products are ideal for people who buy goods only once).
In the process of determining the target audience, you must necessarily pay close attention to the dynamics of its number and the total number, which is measured in thousands. The volume that your target audience has is the market capacity and the maximum sales volume. Thanks to this information, you can estimate in advance the profitability of the business conducted, as well as the overall return on advertising investments and the prospect of the company's growth in the future.
Kernel and types
The nucleus has any target audience: it is a certain group of people, which includes the most important and active consumers of a certain product. In the majority of cases it is customary to refer the core to consumers who can bring the company the maximum share of sales and profits, that is, they use this product more often or they experience the highest demand, satisfying it by any means. Thus, in modern marketing practice, it is customary to distinguish two main types to which the target audience may belong: it is primary and secondary. Each type has its own characteristics, and therefore requires an individual approach.
Primary, or as it is still called, the main target audience of advertising is the priority communication of any brand, which includes a group of people who make a direct decision on the need to purchase a particular product. In other words, the primary audience is the initiator of the purchase.
The secondary target audience behaves more passively, and even if it takes part in the procurement process, it can not be the initiator of the need to purchase a service or product. In this regard, the secondary audience does not have such a high priority for the brand.
The differences that each such target audience of a brand has is this is the initiative of the acquisition. A vivid example here can be children's clothing, which was originally designed specifically for children, but at the same time only parents will buy it. Children can not make independent purchases of clothes for themselves, but often act as initiators, as they ask it from their parents and need it, and therefore they represent the primary audience.
According to socio-demographic characteristics, the target audience is a group of people, distributed according to the following parameters:
- social or family status;
- income level;
- race or nationality;
- occupation, profession, position;
- place of residence.
In this case, the definition of the target audience is the choice of a certain group of people according to the above criteria. For example, some goods can be designed for women aged 40-50 years with small or medium income, who have a secondary special or higher education, and who live in large cities with a population of more than 1 million people.
This principle is fully used when the target audience of the media is determined - these are regional or inter-city TV channels, the transmissions and broadcasts of which are designed for a specific group of people. For example, forensic programs and series are designed mainly for men over 30 years old and having an average level of income.
Psychographic characteristics are also used to provide coverage to the target audience. This is a certain number of parameters that must be met by people who are potential customers:
- description of character traits;
- values, attitude to any acute social problems;
- model of consumer behavior;
- a hobby, a way of life, some personal hobbies;
- the most frequent places to purchase goods or the features of the purchase;
- attitude to the price;
- the factors that determine the choice of a product.
All these parameters must be taken into account, especially if you use more serious means of advertising, such as conducting custom interviews, shows or anything else. The target audience of the transfer is one of the most important parameters for determining where it is best to advertise your products in this way.
How to determine the target audience?
The most difficult, but the primary task for any modern business is to identify the target audience of its own product. It is from this step in the future will completely depend on the entire marketing mix, which your company holds on the market. It should be noted that the definition of the target audience can be carried out in two main ways:
- proceed from the features of the product that you are implementing;
- proceed from the size of the market that you are going to capture.
What should be considered when determining the target audience?
Regardless of which option you choose, you need to answer some of the most important questions:
- What is the social and demographic profile of potential clients?
- What kind of psychographic features can a target audience have?
- What are the main requirements for the product can be made by the majority of potential consumers?
- What key needs will people try to satisfy buying this product?
- How are consumers going to make purchases, and what exactly influences their choice?
- Where the target consumer can find out information about a particular product and with what specific means of communication does he interact throughout his day?
We determine depending on the goods
If you have a specific product, and yet you can not change its characteristics or make it quite difficult, then you should choose for yourself a segment of the market in which even with the current features your products can become popular. In this case, the most optimal way is to use the following scheme for searching potential consumers:
- Analysis of the goods. Conduct a comparative competitive analysis of your products, try to see its strong or unique properties. It is best to find at least 2-3 such most important qualities that can be the design of packaging, price, working conditions and much more.
- Analysis of consumers. Try to conduct a survey in the form of consumer surveys. Try to get from loyal customers the answers to the above questions and determine why your goods are currently valued in the market and why they are buying.
- Segmentation. Based on the key properties for which the product is distributed by consumers on the market, engage in segmentation. Identify groups of people who are interested in and not interested in your product, as well as those who might be interested in it in the future.
- Planning. Prepare the most detailed plan of marketing campaigns aimed at attracting and retaining potential customers to improve the product and expand the range.
Also an important element that must be taken into account when the external and internal target audience is determined is the social and demographic profile of potential buyers.
Determine depending on the market
If you are only going to launch a certain product on the market and at the same time set a goal to capture it, in this case you are by no means limited in terms of the existing product, as well as the image that has formed about it. In this case, you can use the following work plan in order to find for yourself in the end the most attractive target audience:
- conduct a full segmentation of the market and its analysis;
- try to identify the most attractive segments in terms of the principles of work and profit;
- describe the most likely buyers from this segment, based on the above six questions;
- make a detailed plan of how you are going to work with the target audience.
Specifics of defining the target audience
In the process of drawing a portrait of your target audience, you should always think that this is a certain group of people who want to meet a certain need, and that is what your product is intended for. In other words, you offer people some product that solves a specific need, and you need to find those consumers who have this need. They will represent the target market for you.
Such a group can be broad enough or narrow, and the wider your target audience, the more diffuse its description will be, because it becomes difficult to single out some of the most pronounced characteristics. In practice, all companies try to target precisely a wide range of target consumers, trying to limit it to the limits of age, income or values. After that, the target audience is already divided into several groups depending on the model of consumer behavior, and each group is described in more detail using the behavioral characteristics, as well as the intensity of the buyer's need.