Called the transport pipeline, whereby the movement of solid, vapor or liquid products. It is the delivery of raw materials to consumers. Next, let's consider the features which has pipeline transport of Russia.
The development of pipeline transport began more than a century ago. At the source of his creation was Mendeleev. He believed that the pipeline transport of oil and gas would ensure an intensive expansion of the relevant industrial sectors. This, in turn, would allow the country to enter the world market. Today, Russia's pipeline transport provides not only the needs of the state, but also supplies Western Europe, South-East Asia, and Turkey.
Pipeline transportation is considered economically viable and progressive. It is universal, it differs in the absence of cargo losses during the delivery with fully automated and mechanized unloading and loading processes. Also, the return of the packaging is excluded. Due to this, fewer funds are spent on transporting goods by pipeline than, for example, by rail. This sector acquires special importance in connection with the remoteness of deposits from the consumer.
Pipeline transport may be the main. He connects several enterprises in various industries, located in the tens, hundreds, and sometimes thousands of miles from each other. Pipeline transport can be also technological. Its length is 1-3 km, and the means provided by the connection of technological processes within a single enterprise. Industrial piping has a length of up to 10-15 km, and It connects businesses to one business sector.
The pipeline is a pipeline of pipes, the diameter of which is up to 1.5 thousand mm. They are laid to a depth of 2.5 m. Pipeline transportation of petroleum products is equipped with special equipment. It is intended for heating viscous varieties, dehydration and degassing. Pipeline transportation of gas is equipped with facilities for dehumidification and odorization (giving a sharp specific odor). In addition, there are distribution and pumping stations. The latter are designed to maintain optimum pressure. At the beginning of the highway, the main lines are installed, and after 100-150 km - intermediate pumping stations. The total length of pipelines in the Russian Federation is 217 thousand km, oil accounts for 46.7 thousand km, gas - 151 thousand km. In terms of turnover, it ranks second after railway. Trunk pipelines transport 100% of gas, 99% of oil and more than 50% of processed compounds.
The main advantages of the system
The objects of pipeline transport have a number of undoubted advantages. Among them:
- Providing the possibility of supplying an almost unlimited flow of gasoline, oil, jet and diesel fuel in different directions.
- Implementation of consistent pumping of different grades and types of raw materials.
- Move pipeline transport is characterized by a consistency and continuity throughout different time periods. It does not depend on natural, climatic, geographical and other conditions. This, in turn, ensures uninterrupted delivery of raw materials to consumers.
- Strip systems can be carried out almost in all directions, the regions in any topographic, climatic and geotechnical conditions. Thus, the country has not only land but sea and pipeline transport.
- Highway the highway represents the shortest path between points and may have a significantly smaller length in comparison with others.
- The construction of the pipeline is carried out in a relatively short period provides the fastest development of gas and oil fields, high power pumping plants.
- On the mains, partially or fully automated process control systems can be used.
- Pipeline type of transport has better technical and economic indicators in comparison with others.
In addition, modern materials manufacturing technologies provide reliability, durability and high wear resistance of the mains.
Pipeline transportation of oil
Control of the system
Company “Transneft” and its subsidiaries have the world's largest system of oil pipelines trunk type. She is a natural monopoly, which is state-owned and controlled by the state. Management is carried out through the establishment of tariffs for services, the distribution of access to export routes, coordination of investment in the industry, which also influence prices. The total length of the pipeline system “Transneft”, which provides connectivity to almost all areas of extraction of raw materials to export terminals and refining centers, is 70 thousand km.
The largest systems in the Russian Federation
There are three major highways in Russia:
- The Oil Pipeline “Friendship”. It is the largest system in the world. His route starts in Almetyevsk, passes through Samara and Bryansk to Mozyr, where it diverges in two directions. The Northern section passes through the territories of Lithuania, Latvia, Germany, Poland, Belarus, and South through Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Ukraine.
- The Eastern pipeline. This system is under construction. It is assumed that it will connect deposits of Western and Eastern Siberia with the Kozmino port, located in Nakhodka Bay, as well as the plant being there. The total length should be 4188 km. as the operator of the pipeline is “Transneft”. Grade raw material, which comes on the market with the help of ESPO, ESPO called. Since the end of December 2009 launched the first phase of the pipeline from Taishet to Skovorodino. Its length amounted to 2694 km Power “ESPO-1” – 30 million t/year. Subsequently, half of the pumped materials will be sent to the port of Kozmino.
- The Baltic system. This highway is considered one of the most promising. The system is aimed at the formation of a new export direction of the Timan-Pechora region, the Urals and the Volga region and Western Siberia. Along with this it is expected to provide transit from the CIS countries, in particular from Kazakhstan. The project includes the construction of a new domestic terminal for transshipment of raw materials in the area of Primorsk.
Transportation of gas
The system delivering this raw material is considered to be the youngest. It should be noted that pipeline transport is the only one possible for sending this material to consumers. The first highways were built during the Great Patriotic War. As the operator of the gas pipeline system, the state-owned company Gazprom acts. This enterprise is considered the largest not only in the Russian Federation, but also in the world. The company "Gazprom" has the exclusive right to export domestic gas. The length of the highway is more than 160 thousand km.
The largest systems in the Russian Federation
There are 4 main highways:
- A pipeline from Saratov to Moscow. Its construction began during world war II, and in order he joined in 1946. This is the first highway in the country, involved in gas transportation. The length of the system – 843-km highway used pipe with a diameter of 325 mm., the Highway passes through the Moscow, Ryazan, Tambov, Penza and Saratov areas.
- The System Of “Urengoy – Pomary – Uzhgorod”. This is the first Soviet gas export line. The system connects the fields in the North of Western Siberia and the West of Ukraine. Then the raw materials are delivered to end consumers in Europe. The highway crosses the border of Russia and Ukraine to the North of Sumy.
- Export system “Yamal – Europe”. This highway connects the fields in Western Siberia with consumers in Europe. It runs through Poland and Belarus.
- System “the Blue stream”. This highway which connects Turkey and Russia and is on the Black sea. Its total length is 1213 km, it includes:
- Land plot, located on the Russian territory from the town of Izobilny (Stavropol CR.) to the village of Arkhipo-Osipovka (Krasnodar CR.). Its length is 373 km
- Marine section from the village of Arkhipo-Osipovka to located in 60 km from the Turkish city of Samsun Durusu terminal. Its length is 396 km.
- Land plot from Samsun to Ankara, located on the Turkish side. Its length is 444 km.
Issues related to the development of pipeline transport were considered at governmental meetings. They, among other things, approved the strategy until 2010. During the discussion, many scientists and specialists proposed to develop the fuel and energy sector, and especially the gas and oil industries, so that they eventually become the locomotive of the socio-economic revival of the country. In accordance with the approved strategy, by 2020, the system of raw materials extraction is expected to change due to the introduction of new deposits in the eastern part of the Siberian territory, the Timan-Pechora NGP, and the reduction of production in existing basins. The main export destinations for oil will be:
- The Asia-Pacific.
The last two will become major promising projects.
This pipeline must pass through the Baltic Sea and connect the Russian Federation with Germany. The agreement on the construction of the highway was concluded in September 2005. According to the project, this pipeline should become one of the most extensive systems located under water. The launch of the highway to full capacity was planned for 2012. Under the project, the two directions of the gas pipeline should deliver 55 billion cubic meters of domestic gas per year for at least five decades to the EU countries.
This is a joint project of Russia, France and Italy. The main line must connect the city of Novorossiysk and the port of Varna in Bulgaria. Then its branches will go to Italy and Austria through the Balkan Peninsula. In accordance with the project, the system should be operational in 2015. The creation of the South Stream is being done to diversify supplies of raw materials to Europe and reduce the dependence of buyers and suppliers on transit countries - Turkey and Ukraine. This highway is considered a competitive project of the Nabucco gas pipeline, the route of which should go to the south of Russia. This system is supported by the United States and the European Union.
Directions of transit and export
For economic and strategic interests of the Russian Federation carried out a systematic and comprehensive study of new routes from CIS countries through Russia. This direction will:
- New North Baikal and Central European. They will pass through the west of the country.
- Pacific (in the near future) and East Siberian (in the long term).
- The Caspian-Black Sea.
The economic and strategic interests of the Russian Federation are closely connected with the increase in transit supplies of oil from the CIS countries. They will facilitate the loading of existing facilities and the construction of new ones.
Pipeline transportation is the system that is developing most dynamically today. As its main difference is the fact that the delivery of directly the raw materials without the movement of the TS. To ensure the smooth operation of the entire existing trunk system, the management of its work is in the sphere of activity of domestic natural monopolies. In Russia, they include Gazprom and the state-owned company Transneft. The country's energy strategy, developed before 2020, will ensure the realization of Russia's economic interests. Along with this, new export directions will be of special importance, the development of which is carried out in a comprehensive and systematic manner. As the largest promising projects will be the "North" and "South" flows, the "Baltic System 2", ESPO. Being a country with the richest oil and gas reserves, Russia occupies the leading place in the world in the supply of raw materials to other countries. In the strategy, among other things, the project of supplying domestic raw materials to China is planned. According to estimates, it can become one of the largest export destinations. With a dynamic expansion of industries, the state has every opportunity to strengthen its economic state, to take a worthy place in the international system. Particular importance in this case will have predictive estimates of the extraction and subsequent processing of raw materials, production and consumption of products, which are presented in the approved energy strategy. Expansion of industries will attract additional labor resources, thus ensuring a more complete employment of the population.