Called the transport pipeline, whereby the movement of solid, vapor or liquid products. It is the delivery of raw materials to consumers. Next, let's consider the features which has pipeline transport of Russia.
The development of pipeline transport began more than a century ago. At the root of his creation was Mendeleev. He believed that the pipeline transportation of oil and gas will provide an intensive expansion of the relevant industrial sectors. This, in turn, would allow the country to enter the world market. Today the pipeline transport of Russia provides not only the needs of the state, but also supplies Western Europe, Southeast Asia, and Turkey.
Pipeline transport is considered cost-effective and progressive. It is universal, characterized by the absence of loss of cargo during delivery with fully automated and mechanized loading and unloading processes. Tare return is also excluded. Due to this, the movement of goods by pipeline transport spends less money than, for example, by rail. This sector is of particular importance due to the remoteness of deposits from the consumer.
Pipeline transport may be the main. He connects several enterprises in various industries, located in the tens, hundreds, and sometimes thousands of miles from each other. Pipeline transport can be also technological. Its length is 1-3 km, and the means provided by the connection of technological processes within a single enterprise. Industrial piping has a length of up to 10-15 km, and It connects businesses to one business sector.
The pipeline is a line of pipes whose diameter is up to 1.5 thousand mm. They are laid to a depth of 2.5 m. Pipeline transportation of petroleum products is equipped with special equipment. It is intended for heating viscous varieties, dehydration and degassing. Pipeline transportation of gas is equipped with installations for drainage and odorization (giving a sharp peculiar smell). In addition, there are distribution and pumping stations. The latter are designed to maintain optimum pressure. At the beginning of the line, the head ones are installed, and after 100-150 km - intermediate pumping stations. The total length of pipelines in the Russian Federation is 217 thousand km, oil accounts for 46.7 thousand km, gas pipelines - 151 thousand km. In terms of freight turnover, it ranks second after the railway. The main pipelines transport 100% of gas, 99% of oil and more than 50% of the processed compounds.
The main advantages of the system
Objects of pipeline transport have a number of undoubted advantages. Among them:
- Providing the possibility of supplying an almost unlimited flow of gasoline, oil, jet and diesel fuel in different directions.
- The implementation of sequential pumping of various grades and types of raw materials.
- Move pipeline transport is characterized by a consistency and continuity throughout different time periods. It does not depend on natural, climatic, geographical and other conditions. This, in turn, ensures uninterrupted delivery of raw materials to consumers.
- Strip systems can be carried out almost in all directions, the regions in any topographic, climatic and geotechnical conditions. Thus, the country has not only land but sea and pipeline transport.
- Highway the highway represents the shortest path between points and may have a significantly smaller length in comparison with others.
- The construction of the pipeline is carried out in a relatively short period provides the fastest development of gas and oil fields, high power pumping plants.
- Partially or fully automated process control systems can be used on highways.
- The pipeline type of transport has the best technical and economic indicators in comparison with others.
In addition, modern materials manufacturing technologies provide reliability, durability and high wear resistance of highways.
Oil pipeline transportation
Company “Transneft” and its subsidiaries have the world's largest system of oil pipelines trunk type. She is a natural monopoly, which is state-owned and controlled by the state. Management is carried out through the establishment of tariffs for services, the distribution of access to export routes, coordination of investment in the industry, which also influence prices. The total length of the pipeline system “Transneft”, which provides connectivity to almost all areas of extraction of raw materials to export terminals and refining centers, is 70 thousand km.
The largest systems in the Russian Federation
There are three major highways in Russia:
- The Oil Pipeline “Friendship”. It is the largest system in the world. His route starts in Almetyevsk, passes through Samara and Bryansk to Mozyr, where it diverges in two directions. The Northern section passes through the territories of Lithuania, Latvia, Germany, Poland, Belarus, and South through Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Ukraine.
- The Eastern pipeline. This system is under construction. It is assumed that it will connect deposits of Western and Eastern Siberia with the Kozmino port, located in Nakhodka Bay, as well as the plant being there. The total length should be 4188 km. as the operator of the pipeline is “Transneft”. Grade raw material, which comes on the market with the help of ESPO, ESPO called. Since the end of December 2009 launched the first phase of the pipeline from Taishet to Skovorodino. Its length amounted to 2694 km Power “ESPO-1” – 30 million t/year. Subsequently, half of the pumped materials will be sent to the port of Kozmino.
- The Baltic system. This highway is considered one of the most promising. The system is aimed at the formation of a new export direction of the Timan-Pechora region, the Urals and the Volga region and Western Siberia. Along with this it is expected to provide transit from the CIS countries, in particular from Kazakhstan. The project includes the construction of a new domestic terminal for transshipment of raw materials in the area of Primorsk.
The system delivering this raw material is considered the youngest. It should be noted that pipeline transport is the only possible way to send this material to consumers. The first highways were built during the Great Patriotic War. The state-owned company Gazprom will act as the gas pipeline system operator. This enterprise is considered the largest not only in the Russian Federation, but also in the world. Gazprom has an exclusive right to export domestic gas. The length of the line is more than 160 thousand km.
The largest systems in the Russian Federation
There are 4 main highways:
- A pipeline from Saratov to Moscow. Its construction began during world war II, and in order he joined in 1946. This is the first highway in the country, involved in gas transportation. The length of the system – 843-km highway used pipe with a diameter of 325 mm., the Highway passes through the Moscow, Ryazan, Tambov, Penza and Saratov areas.
- The System Of “Urengoy – Pomary – Uzhgorod”. This is the first Soviet gas export line. The system connects the fields in the North of Western Siberia and the West of Ukraine. Then the raw materials are delivered to end consumers in Europe. The highway crosses the border of Russia and Ukraine to the North of Sumy.
- Export system “Yamal – Europe”. This highway connects the fields in Western Siberia with consumers in Europe. It runs through Poland and Belarus.
- System “the Blue stream”. This highway which connects Turkey and Russia and is on the Black sea. Its total length is 1213 km, it includes:
- Land plot, located on the Russian territory from the town of Izobilny (Stavropol CR.) to the village of Arkhipo-Osipovka (Krasnodar CR.). Its length is 373 km
- Marine section from the village of Arkhipo-Osipovka to located in 60 km from the Turkish city of Samsun Durusu terminal. Its length is 396 km.
- A land plot from the city of Samsun to the city of Ankara, located on the Turkish side. Its length is 444 km.
Issues related to the development of pipeline transport were considered at government meetings. They, among other things, approved the strategy until 2010. During the discussion, many scientists and specialists proposed to develop the fuel and energy sector, and especially the gas and oil industries, so that they eventually became the driving force of the country's socio-economic revival. In accordance with the approved strategy, by 2020, it is planned to change the system for extracting raw materials due to the introduction of new fields in the eastern part of Siberia, the Timan-Pechora oil field, as well as a decrease in production in the existing basins. The main export destinations of oil will be:
- Asia Pacific.
- North European.
The last two will be large promising projects.
This gas pipeline should pass through the Baltic Sea and connect the Russian Federation with Germany. The agreement on the construction of the highway was concluded in September 2005. According to the project, this pipeline should be one of the longest systems located under water. Commissioning of the highway at full capacity was planned for 2012. According to the project, two gas pipeline directions should deliver 55 billion m 3 of domestic gas per year for at least five decades to the EU countries.
This is a joint project of Russia, France and Italy. The highway should connect the city of Novorossiysk and the port of Varna in Bulgaria. Then its branches will go to Italy and Austria through the Balkan Peninsula. In accordance with the project, the system should be operational in 2015. The creation of the “South Stream” is made to diversify the supply of raw materials to Europe and reduce the dependence of buyers and suppliers on transit countries - Turkey and Ukraine. This highway is considered to be a competitive Nabucco gas pipeline project, the route of which should go south of the Russian Federation. This system is supported by the United States and the European Union.
Transit and export directions
For economic and strategic interests of the Russian Federation carried out a systematic and comprehensive study of new routes from CIS countries through Russia. This direction will:
- New North Baikal and Central European. They will be held in the west of the country.
- Pacific (in the near future) and East Siberian (in the long term).
- Caspian-Black Sea.
The economic and strategic interests of the Russian Federation are closely linked to the increase in transit oil supplies from the CIS countries. They will contribute to the loading of existing capacities and the construction of new ones.
Pipeline transportation is a system that is developing most dynamically today. Its main difference is the fact that the delivery of the raw material itself is carried out without moving the vehicle. To ensure the smooth functioning of the entire existing backbone system, management of its work is in the sphere of activity of domestic natural monopolies. In Russia, these include OAO Gazprom and the state-owned company Transneft. The country's energy strategy, developed until 2020, will ensure the realization of the economic interests of the Russian Federation. At the same time, new export directions will be of particular importance. Their development is carried out in a comprehensive and planned way. As the largest promising projects will be the "Northern" and "South" streams, "Baltic System 2", ESPO. Being a country with the richest reserves of oil and gas, the Russian Federation occupies a leading position in the world in the supply of raw materials to other countries. In the strategy, among other things, a project is planned for the supply of domestic raw materials to China. According to estimates, it can become one of the largest export destinations. With the dynamic expansion of industries, the state has all the possibilities to strengthen the economic state, to occupy a worthy place in the international system. Of particular importance here will be the predictive estimates of the extraction and subsequent processing of raw materials, production and consumption of products, which are presented in the approved energy strategy. Expansion of industries will attract additional labor resources, thus ensuring a more full employment of the population.