Peat humus is a pressed (in varying degrees) the remains of animals and plants. It includes also other components. Nationwide study material deals with the all-Russian Institute of organic fertilizers and peat, located in the Vladimir region. The institution carries out research activities, working on the problem the most efficient use of resources in agriculture of the country. Next we shall consider the useful properties of peat. In this article you will learn about the advantages and ways of application of the material on the plot.
In natural conditions peat is formed in wetlands, in areas with high humidity and inhibit access of air. Since it is present about 60 % carbon, and the compound is applied as a fuel. The material used in the construction. Peat is also used as fertilizer.
Living in overgrown reservoirs with slow water and swamps, animals and plants die over time. The result is a layer of biomass. Every year these layers becomes larger. As a result, the biomass begins to be compressed. So in conditions of high humidity and insufficient air flow is formed peat.
Depending on the level of decomposition of the components of peat may be upland, lowland and transitional. Material relating to the first type, includes cottongrass, white (sphagnum) mosses, Ledum, and other plants, undemanding to water and food. Peat – mass is practically not decomposed components. Compound of the second type includes sedges, remnants of wood, green (hypnosia) mosses, reed grasses, reeds, horsetails. The peat is completely decomposed mixture. The transitional mass is an intermediate state between the first two. In areas where this material is formed, grow rosemary, cottongrass, sedge, mosses (sphagnum and green) and other plants. Mass of upland and transitional types are characterized by high acidity. In this regard, such peat as a fertilizer in its pure form is not applied. While riding, the material is an excellent substrate for the cultivation in greenhouses of vegetables and seedlings.
The use of peat for fertilizer
Many owners infield concerned with the question: “is it Possible to use the compound in pure form for feeding?” Some gardeners generally have little experience of farming, try to buy peat in large quantity. They scatter it in the beds, lay thick layers under shrubs and trees. But is it worth it? More experienced gardeners are in a hurry to warn: this method yields good not to. Despite the fact that the connection of transitional and lowland type consists of humus on 40-60 %, it is not recommended to use only a single peat. Organic fertilizer poor in nutrients. It is, of course, nitrogen (this component is present in an amount up to 25 kg per ton), but this element is rather poorly absorbed by agricultural plants. So, from tons of cultures connection gets no more than one and a half kilograms of nitrogen, and other nutrients and less. That is why the fertilization of soils with peat should be done in combination with other types of feeding.
For the enrichment of the soil is fertilizer – peat is undoubtedly useful. One of the advantages of the material is its fibrous structure. It significantly improves the physiological properties of soil of different composition. The soil enrichment after the connection is air and water permeable, freely and easily “breathes”. In this case the root system of crops feels great. But all the useful properties characteristic only for transitional and lowland types. As mentioned above, peat as a fertilizer is not applied, however, it is considered an excellent mulching material that covers culture for the winter. Of course much depends on the quality of the soil. For example, when a high level of fertility of ground fertilizer with peat almost nothing. It is impractical to enrich the material and light loamy and sandy loam soil. Another thing, if the site has clay or sandy soil. On exhausted, poor in mineral elements earth, depositing material in combination with other supplements will significantly increase yield, improve the appearance of plants, to create the most favorable conditions for their development. In this regard peat as a fertilizer is of value only in combination with other materials in the form of compost.
For fertilizing the soil using peat from lowland bogs, consisting of highly decomposed elements (40% at least). The same material is used for compost preparation. Peat, degree of decomposition is less than 25% is used for bedding for animals. The best is the stuff of transitional and lowland type with a neutral reaction (non-acidic). It must have a decomposition degree of about 30-40 %, while the zoning is of the order of 13-15 %. Peat before actual use, be sure to ventilate. The frozen material better lends itself to chopping. In addition, in this form it is more evenly distributed over the plot, decays quickly enough. In the result previously unavailable to crops nutrients become available. Peat, which is designed for feeding dry you should not. Its moisture content shall be not less than 50-70 %. The dry material is poorly retains moisture, almost moistened and decomposes rather slowly. It adversely affects a sandy podzolic soil, especially during dry periods. In addition, it should be remembered that the material is very little potassium and phosphorus. And these elements are vital for normal development of crops. In regard to peat you need to add superphosphate, potassium (chloride) and manure in small quantities.
The degree of decomposition
In its purest form aired peat used for mulching vegetable varieties. It is combined with sawdust, straw cutting, manure. To determine the decomposition degree, you should take a handful of material tightly compress it. Received a lump you need to hold a piece of paper (white). Paint smear will indicate the degree of peat decomposition. The trail can be slightly yellow or colorless. The degree of decomposition in this case is less than 10 %. A swab may be slightly brown, sometimes light grey. With no adhering fibers. In this case, the degree of decomposition is from 10 to 20 % (approximately). The trail can be up to dark brown with black and grey hue, while its surface is smooth and lump stain the palm. In this case, the degree of decomposition of 30-35 %. The stroke color can be very dark black-brown. In this case, the ball is well saved fingerprints. The decomposition rate exceeds 50 %.
Production of fertilizers from peat on the plot in a specific ratio. Suitable for composting all types of material. However, it is best to use ventilated peat whose humidity 65-70 %. The mixing ratio depends on the time of year. For example, in winter, peat and manure mixed 1:1. In the summer, the proportion varies: 1:4 or 1:3. In case if you are using peat with a high degree of decomposition and horse manure in the winter the ratio is 3:1, and in the summer even 8:1.
Methods of composting
There are two options to create feeding: focal and lamellar. In the latter case, on a specially prepared pad is placed peat. The layer should be at least two feet below the muck is not leaked into the ground. Then laid the manure. Alternate layers until the height will be 1-1.5 meters. Latest stack peat. If you are using a 1:1 ratio, the thickness of the layers of the stack can reach 25-30 cm is Not recommended to raise the compost pile above five feet. Laterally it should be covered with garden earth or peat. It provides a special microclimate inside the heap. Periodically moisten the compost with water and superphosphate (on the bucket 100 g of compound). If you have any difficulty with the manure, you can apply diluted the slurry (in a bucket of water for 5 kg of mullein, or 0.5 kg of dry or 2 kg of fresh poultry litter). During the summer, you need to twice-well three times to shovel the compost pile. The upper layer needs to go down, and the bottom, respectively, to the top.
In this case, prepared with a special ground must be laid peat. A layer of material – not less than 50-60 cm in the middle and Then along the stack of stacked manure. The thickness of its layer – 70-80 cm, and width – less peat. If manure is applied or not enough liquid a liquid, it is better to stack as a discontinuous separate foci. Fecal mass from all sides should impose a peat layer at 50-60 cm in Summer, the heap needs moisture. This applies to a water or slurry. In the process of laying the pile in the compost, it is advisable to add the potassium mixture per 1 kg mass by 0.5-0.6 kg of feed. Depending on the acidity also has been introduced and lime.
Features of feeding of the soil
You must say at the outset that “preadamite” peat soil is impossible. Paid material as in the fall and in the spring. Peat must be spread evenly across the plot, homeland is the land of bayonet spade. Generally practiced the following relationship: 1 m 2 plots 30-40 kg of material. It is also recommended to pour the turf under the bushes and the unloading of the circle of trees and in places the subsequent planting of crops (layer 5-6 cm). To neutralize the acidity of the material should be applied dolomite flour or lime (a hundred kg 5 kg “Converter”) or wood ash. The last is added in a ratio of 100 kg of peat 10-12 kg.