Russian noble princess Anna Kashinskaya during her life was characterized by great patience, which in its strength was comparable to the courage of a warrior. She experienced the pain of losing the closest people, having managed to keep a good heart and remained the support for her people in all adversities. Canonized after death, she was prepared for a controversial share. Anna Kashinskaya was twice confirmed in holiness, and only she has six days of memory in a year.
Anna Kashinskaya was born in the family of Rostov Prince Dmitry in the city of Kashin roughly in 1279. The name at baptism was given in honor of the righteous Saint Anna, Mother of the Virgin. There were still children in the family. A close person in the family was Ordynsky Tsarevich - Saint Peter, a Tatar who was baptized into Orthodox Christianity, who distinguished himself by great faith and saw the apostles Peter and Paul during the earthly life.
Little is known about the childhood and youth of St. Anna, the chronicles tell us that her life fell on the times of hard times. In Rostov there were many troubles, which brought the Tatar yoke. Finally, the patience of the Rostovites broke down, there was no more strength to bear the bribes and harassment from the Tatars who inhabited the land and constantly arriving combat detachments. An alarm bell rang out and a Russian rebellion broke out, which demolished all the Tatar houses, the townspeople drove out the surviving spongers outside the city walls.
Rostov princes went to the khan with guilt and persuasion not to cause great damage to the people and the principality. Anna Kashinskaya and her sisters remained at home under the tutelage of the boyars and no one knew if the khan would leave the delegation alive or everyone would be killed. At that time there was no bloodshed and no revenge. A few years later, in 1293, the power struggle between Andrei and Dmitry Nevsky began, which led to an internecine war that devastated the North-Eastern lands of Russia, the damage done was comparable to the devastation caused by the Batyi invasion.
The faithful Anna Kashinskaya was famous early for her kindness, extensive charity and beauty. In 1294 the princely children orphaned, the father of Anna died, Uncle Constantine became the trustee. The troubles did not leave the Rostov possession, many people lost their shelter, the need was for whole families, forcing people to wander and begging.
Anna Kashinskaya gave the order to feed the destitute in princely chambers, not to deny anyone a piece of bread. She was very active in helping - to those who could not come for food, she was herself to the place of residence, treated the sick and wounded, cared for the disabled and the elderly. Special attention was paid to widows and orphans. People treated her like the sun, she softened the most cruel hearts with kindness, patience and a great desire to help all the suffering.
The glory of her deeds and beauty reached the limits of the Tver principality and princess Xenia, the mother of Mikhail, Prince of Tver, wished to see her the wife of her son, which was asked by the orphan's trustee: "There is for him a daughter is one, she is virtuous and wise, and beautiful, this I wish my wife to be married to my son; loving the goodness of God for her ", which was recorded in the Resurrection Chronicle. The wedding took place in 1294 in the Transfiguration Cathedral of Tver.
Children and Principality
Anna Kashinskaya, a holy pious princess, lived in a difficult time, when Rus was fragmented, and the Russian princes, in an effort to consolidate power, sought support from the Mongol invaders. After some time after the marriage, the whole city of Tver was burned down, in three years the fire completely absorbed the entire prince's court, but the inhabitants managed to escape. In the same year, in the summer, there was a drought, which caused all crops and livestock to burn, which again led to devastation.
The first child, the daughter of Fyodor, was born to a young couple in 1299, but the girl did not live very long. In 1300, the first son Dmitry appeared, Alexander was born a year later. In 1306, the family was replenished by Constantine, and in 1309 by Vasily. Anna Kashinskaya was a good mother and she participated in the upbringing of children, was engaged in their education, gave a personal example of virtuous life. Children took part in all charitable affairs, visited the church and adopted the mother's love for their neighbor.
Loss of the husband
In 1304, Mikhail Tverskoi assumed the reign. To establish itself on the throne in those days, it was necessary to receive the special approval of the khan - a label, Mikhail went to the bid, but Yury, the son of the deceased Moscow prince Daniel, expressed the claim. Opposition began, covering two principalities for a century and a half.
In 1313 the Khan of the Uzbek Khan took Islam, which ended the era of tolerance in the faith. The situation of Mikhail Tverskoi and his patrimony worsened, and the marital status of Yuri, the Moscow prince, on the sister of the khan, added additional precariousness to the situation. Four years later, Mikhail Tverskoy decided to give up the principality in favor of Yuri, but it was not enough fact of government, he wanted to destroy the enemy. Vtorgshis with a well-armed large squad in the Tver principality, he destroyed the settlements, trampled and burned fields, drove people into slavery. Mikhail led the counteraction company and entered the battle forty versts in front of Tver, Yuri, leaving his squad, fled.
Mikhail took prisoner boyars, princes and Yuri's wife - Tatar Konchaku, negotiations began with the khan. While diplomatic meetings were held, Konchaqa died in Tver. With this news, Yuri went to the khan, telling in a denunciation that it was poisoned by the people of Mikhail. Khan fell into anger and chose a way of revenge. Michael, deciding not to expose his people to another devastation, he went to the Horde. Anna Kashinskaya, the holy pious princess understood that her husband was going to a martyr's death, but she blessed him on the road. The separation of the spouses happened on the bank of the Nerl river, now there is a chapel, in it there was a picture of the prince's farewell scene with the princess.
At the Khan's headquarters, Mikhail accepted martyrdom, which could be avoided at the cost of worshiping idols, which the prince refused. On his death, Prince Moscow was notified and the body was sent there. Anna Kashinskaya and the children did not know what happened to him for a long time. When the situation cleared, she begged Yuri to give her husband's body for burial, he demanded humiliating conditions for the treaty and achieved his goal.
The mutilated body of Prince Michael has come a long way, but has not been degraded, which was regarded as God's miracle. Michael was canonized by the church in 1549, and the people began to honor him for the saint immediately after the burial.
Anna Kashinskaya experienced many troubles, which occurred both in the family and in the state. In 1325, her son Dmitry was slaughtered in the Horde by Yuri, Prince of Moscow, on whose denunciation his father was tortured. Dmitry immediately executed. A year later, the Tatar prince settled in the Tver principality and occupied the prince's chambers for his residence, almost driving Anna and the children out into the street. The people were riddled with grievances, a riot broke out, and the blood of the invaders poured. The battle lasted for twenty-four hours, the Khan's ambassador and his entourage were burned alive in the wards; by the dawn of the next day, not a single Tatar survived.
Anna's family and herself managed to escape from the city. In the fall on Tver, the troops of the khan, the Moscow prince Ivan Kalita and several other princes advanced. The pogrom was total, the scorched earth did not know such pogrom either before or after. Princes Constantine and Basil returned to their lands in 1327 and found there devastation, desertedness, sorrow and began the revival of the principality.
The eldest son Alexander remained in exile, where he got a family and a son, Fyodor. The threat of ruin Khan demanded from the Russian princes to give him Alexander Tverskoi. Ten years later, in 1339, he arrived from Lithuania and went with his son to the Horde. The princess once again said goodbye to her relatives, escorting them to certain death. After these events, there came a certain lull, Constantine was placed on the reign, but he also ended his days in the Horde in 1346.
Passing through many sorrows, losses, torment, Anna Kashinskaya retained great patience, did not fall into despair, which helped her to withstand and preserve a kind, loving heart. During the reign of Constantine, she accepted a monastic order in the Sofia monastery of Tver, taking the name of Euphrosyne. When she was a monk, she did not ignore the needy and helped than she could, to whom the word, and to whom she did it, while leading a strict way of life. Most of the time she dedicated to prayers, fasting, vigils and meditations.
Approximately in 1364, her last son, Prince Vasilii, built the Assumption Monastery in Kashin and persuaded his mother to move into it. Here she adopted the schema under the name of Anna and died in 1368 at the very beginning of October. Her body was buried in the cathedral.
The first canonization
The rumor about the patron saint reached Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich and Patriarch Nikon, they initiated her canonization before the Moscow Cathedral. In 1649, Anna Kashinskaya was a church ranked as a saint. The opening of the grave and the examination of the relics took place in 1649, and in 1650 the king came to participate in the solemn transfer of the relics to the Resurrection Cathedral. On the same day, a miraculous healing of a seriously ill woman happened.
No saint has such a complicated posthumous history, which fell to the reverend Anna Kashinskaya. Thirty years later, the Old Believers began to especially respect it, and the only event in the history of the Russian Church happened - the Patriarch, by his decree, in 1677, forbade reading the saint. The coffin was sealed, the icons with her image seized and taken to Moscow, the cover was removed from the coffin. Sealed even the temple, once consecrated in her honor, later it was renamed the Cathedral of All Saints.
No matter how the earthly rulers were ruling, the miracles of the tomb continued, and there were healings. Residents independently chronicled, painted icons and rewrote the life of St. Anna Kashinskaya. Three times in different years the Orthodox community appealed for a restoration of the veneration of the saint, but they declined.
It was only when the law on the Old Believers was adopted, in 1905, that the next petition was examined. In 1908 all the information about Anna Kashinskaya was collected, they went to Petersburg together with a petition to the sovereign to restore reverence. On July 10, the bell ringing gathered all the citizens to the church, where a collective petition was signed. In autumn the tsar gave permission to the Synod to restore the memory and veneration of the saint, the date was set June 12.
Celebrations on the occasion of the canonization took place in June, they passed with a huge crowd of people. More than 100 thousand guests and pilgrims arrived in the city. At the tomb of Anna Kashinskaya many miracles happened, she became the only saint whose memory is revered six times a year.
After the revolution and until our days
After 1917 the temples in Kashin were gradually closed, the coffin with the relics was constantly transferred, but the holy intercession also did its work here, leaving the city without the functioning church. According to eyewitnesses, some saw Anna Kashinskaya in the first year of the Great Patriotic War, and she said she was protecting her city from invaders. Until 1987, the holy relics of Anna Kashinskaya were in the church of Peter and Paul.
Now bow to the relics of the saint can be in the Ascension Cathedral of the city, the tomb has been there since 1993 and is accessible to all believers. The cathedral is located on the Unity Square in the town of Kashin, Tver region. The temple of Anna Kashinskaya is in several cities and with them, too, not everything is simple. One of them is located in St. Petersburg and belongs to the Orthodox Christian church. But the temple of her name in Kuznets belongs to the Old Believers concession of Orthodox Christianity, it is actively recovering. Another Old Believer church of St. Princess Anna Kashinskaya is laid in Tver.
Pilgrims often come for help to the saint, and Anna Kashinskaya gives comfort to many. What helps the saint? It responds to requests for strengthening of family ties, strengthening in the Christian Orthodox faith and patience. She also becomes the intercessor of all the suffering, widows, orphans and helps those who choose the path of monasticism.