The Russian noble princess Anna Kashinskaya, during her lifetime, was distinguished by enormous patience, which by its strength was comparable to the courage of a warrior. She experienced the pain of losing the closest people, managing to keep a kind heart and remained a support for her people in all adversity. Canonized after death, she was prepared for a controversial share. Anna Kashinskaya was twice asserted in holiness, and only she has six days of memory a year.
Anna Kashinskaya was born in the family of Rostov Prince Dmitry in the city of Kashin approximately in 1279. The name at baptism was given in honor of the righteous saint Anne, mother of the Virgin. There were still children in the family. A close person in the family was the Horde prince — Saint Peter, baptized into Orthodox Christianity, a Tatar, distinguished by great faith and having seen the apostles Peter and Paul during the earthly life.
Little is known about the children's and youthful years of St. Anne, the chronicle sources tell us that her life was in times of bad years. In Rostov, there was a lot of trouble, which brought the Tatar yoke. Finally, the patience of the Rostovites was exhausted, there was no more strength to endure extortion and oppression from the Tatars who inhabited the land and constantly coming combat detachments. The alarm bell rang out and a Russian revolt began, which demolished all Tatar houses, the townspeople expelled the survivors of freeloaders to the city walls.
Rostov princes went to the khan with a confession and persuasion not to cause much damage to the people and principality. Anna Kashinskaya and her sisters remained at home under the tutelage of the boyars, and no one knew whether the khan would leave the delegation alive or everyone would be killed. At that time there was no bloodshed and revenge. A few years later, in 1293, the struggle for power began between Andrey and Dmitry Nevsky, which led to an internecine war that devastated the northeastern lands of Russia, the damage was comparable to the devastation arranged by the Batuy invasion.
Blessed Anna Kashinskaya early became famous for her kindness, extensive charity and beauty. In 1294 princely children were orphaned, Anna's father died, Uncle Constantine became the trustee. The troubles did not leave Rostov ownership, many people lost their homes, the need was pursued by entire families, forcing people to wander and beg.
Anna Kashinskaya gave the order to feed the destitute in the princely chambers, not to refuse anyone in a piece of bread. She was very active in helping - to those who could not come for food, she came to the place of residence herself, treated the sick and wounded, looked after the crippled and the old. Particular attention is paid to widows and orphans. People treated her like the sun, she softened the most cruel hearts with a good disposition, patience and a great desire to help all those who suffer.
The glory about her affairs and beauty reached the limits of the principality of Tver and Princess Xenia, the mother of Michael, Prince of Tver, wished to see her as the spouse of her son, which the orphan’s trustee asked for: I wish you to marry my son in marriage; by loving “her sake of kindness”, which was recorded in the Voskresensk annals. The wedding took place in 1294 in the Transfiguration Cathedral of Tver.
Children and principality
Anna Kashinskaya, the holy blessed princess, lived in a difficult time, when Russia was fragmented, and the Russian princes, in an effort to consolidate power, sought support from the Mongolian invaders. Some time after the marriage was concluded, the entire city of Tver burned down, after another three years the fire completely engulfed the entire prince's court, but the inhabitants managed to escape. In the same year, in the summer, there was a drought, causing all crops and livestock feed to burn, which again led to devastation.
The first child, the daughter of Fyodor, was born to a young couple in 1299, but the girl lived only a short time. In 1300 the first son was born - Dmitry, a year later Alexander was born. In 1306, the family joined the Constantine, and in 1309 Basil. Anna Kashinskaya was a good mother and she herself participated in the upbringing of children, was engaged in their education, and gave a personal example of a virtuous life. The children took part in all charity affairs, attended church and borrowed love for their neighbor from their mother.
Loss of husband
In 1304, Mikhail of Tver took over the reign. In order to establish himself on the throne at that time, it was necessary to get a special approval from the Khan - a label, Mikhail went to the headquarters, but Yuri, the son of the late Moscow Prince Daniel, expressed his claims. The confrontation began, covering the two principalities for a century and a half.
In 1313, the Horde of Khan Uzbek converted to Islam, which ended the era of tolerance in religion. The position of Mikhail Tversky and his patrimony worsened; the marriage of Yuri, the Moscow prince, to the Khan's sister, added to the situation. Four years later, Mikhail of Tverskoy decided to sacrifice the principality in favor of Yuri, but that was not enough of the rule, he wished to destroy the enemy. Having invaded the principality of Tver with a well-armed large army, he destroyed settlements, trampled and burned fields, drove people into slavery. Mikhail led the campaign to oppose and joined the battle forty miles before Tver, Yuri, leaving the squad, fled.
Mikhail captured the boyars, princes and Yuri's wife, Tatarka Konchak, and negotiations began with the khan. While diplomatic meetings were being held, Konchak died in Tver. With this news, Yuri went to the khan, telling in a denunciation that Mikhail's people had poisoned her. Khan was angry and he chose a way of revenge. Michael, deciding not to expose his people to another ruin, he went to the Horde. Anna Kashinskaya, the holy princess understood that her husband was going to the martyr's death, but blessed him on the road. The separation of the spouses occurred on the banks of the Nerl River, now there is a chapel, it previously had a depiction of the prince’s farewell to the princess.
At the rate of Khan, Michael accepted a martyr's execution, which could have been avoided at the cost of worshiping idols, which the prince refused. The Prince of Moscow was notified of his death and the body was sent there too. Anna Kashinskaya and the children for a long time did not know what happened to him. When the situation cleared up, she begged Yuri for a long time to hand over her husband’s body for burial, he demanded humiliating conditions for the contract and got his way.
Prince Michael’s mutilated body has come a long way, but has not been decomposed, which was regarded as God's miracle. Michael was canonized by the church in 1549, and the people began to honor him for the saint immediately after burial.
Anna Kashinskaya survived many troubles that occurred, both in the family and in the state. In 1325, her son Dmitri hacked to death in the Horde Yuri, prince of Moscow, on whose denunciation his father was tortured. Dmitri immediately executed. A year later, the Tatar ambassador settled in the Tver principality and occupied the princely chambers for his residence, almost driving Anna and the children out onto the street. Grievances accumulated among the people, a riot broke out, and the blood of the invaders poured. The battle lasted a day, the Khan's ambassador and his entourage were burned alive in the wards, and by the dawn of the next day not a single Tatar was left alive.
Anna's family and herself managed to escape from the city. In autumn, the troops of Khan, Prince of Moscow Ivan Kalita and several other princes moved forward to Tver. The pogrom was total, the scorched earth neither before nor after did not know such a pogrom. Princes Konstantin and Vasily returned to their lands in 1327 and found there devastation, desolation, sorrow, and began the revival of the principality.
The eldest son Alexander remained in exile, where he had a family and a son, Fedor. Khan demanded the Russian princes to extradite Alexander of Tver to the threat of ruin. Ten years later, in 1339, he arrived from Lithuania and went with his son to the Horde. The princess once again said goodbye to her family, escorting them to certain death. After these events, there was some lull, Constantine was put on reign, but he too ended his days in the Horde in 1346.
After going through a lot of sorrows, losses, torments, Anna Kashinskaya kept great patience, did not fall into despair, which helped her to withstand and keep a good loving heart. During the reign of Constantine, she took the monastic orders in the Sofia monastery of Tver, adopting the name Euphrosyne. When she was a monk, she didn’t disregard the needy and helped with what she could, to whom she spoke, and to whom she did, leading a strict lifestyle. Most of the time she devoted prayers, fasting, vigils and reflections.
Approximately in 1364, her last son, Prince Vasily, built the Assumption Monastery in Kashin and persuaded his mother to move into it. Here she took the schema under the name of Anna and died in 1368 at the very beginning of October. Her body was buried in the cathedral.
The rumor about the patron saint reached Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and Patriarch Nikon, they initiated her canonization in front of the Moscow Cathedral. In 1649, Anna Kashinskaya was a church canonized saint. The autopsy of the grave and the inspection of the relics took place in 1649, and in 1650 the king came to participate in the ceremonial transfer of the relics to the Resurrection Cathedral. On the same day, a miraculous healing of a seriously ill woman happened.
Not a single saint has such a complicated posthumous story, which has befallen the venerable Anna Kashinskaya. Three decades later, the Old Believers especially began to venerate it, and the only event in the history of the Russian church happened - the Patriarch, by his decree, in 1677, forbade the veneration of the saint. The coffin was sealed, the icons with its image were removed and taken to Moscow, the cover from the coffin was removed. They even sealed the temple, which was once consecrated in her honor, later it was renamed All Saints Cathedral.
No matter how the earthly rulers disposed of, miracles at the tomb continued, there were healings. Residents independently chronicled, wrote icons and copied the life of St. Anna of Kashin. Three times in different years, the Orthodox community asked for restoration of veneration of the saint, but they were rejected.
It was possible to achieve consideration of the next petition only when the law on Old Believers was passed, in 1905. In 1908, all information about Anna Kashinskaya was collected, they went to St. Petersburg along with a petition addressed to the sovereign about the restoration of reverence. On July 10, the bell ringing gathered all citizens into the church, where a collective petition was signed. In the fall, the king gave permission to the Synod for the restoration of memory and veneration of the holy, the date was appointed on June 12
Celebrations on the occasion of canonization took place in June, they were held with a huge concourse of people. More than 100 thousand guests and pilgrims arrived in the city. At the tomb of Anna Kashinsky many miracles have happened, she became the only saint whose memory is revered six times a year.
After the revolution and to the present day
After 1917, the temples in Kashin were gradually closed, the coffin with relics was constantly transferred, but the holy intercession did its job here, leaving the city without an active church. According to eyewitnesses, some saw Anna Kashinskaya in the first year of the Great Patriotic War, and she said that she was protecting her city from invaders. Until 1987, the holy relics of Anna Kashinsky were in the temple of Peter and Paul.
Now it is possible to worship the relics of the saint in the Ascension Cathedral of the city, the tomb has been there since 1993 and is available to all believers. The cathedral is located on the Unity Square in the city of Kashin, Tver region. The temple of Anna Kashinskaya is in several cities and with them, too, is not all simple. One of them is located in St. Petersburg and belongs to the Orthodox Christian Church. But the church of its name in Kuznetsy belongs to the Old Believers concession of Orthodox Christianity, it is actively being restored. Another Old Believer Church of the Holy Princess Anna Kashinskaya was founded in Tver.
Pilgrims often come for help to the saint, and many are comforted by Anna Kashinskaya. How does the saint help? She responds to requests for strengthening family ties, strengthening in the Christian Orthodox faith and patience. She also becomes an intercessor for all the suffering, widows, orphans, and helps those who choose the path of monasticism.