Perception is the basic category of psychology. Man in the process of cognitive activity does not deal with individual elements of phenomena or their characteristics, but with a complex representation of the subject. Properties and parts of the object, their size, taste and smell allow us to recreate a single picture of what is happening. The process of merging these puzzles is called perception in psychological science.

What is the process of perception?

Before disclosing the theme "Basic properties of perception," special attention should be given to the physiological mechanisms of this process. Perception is a complex process of reflecting phenomena and objects in the subconscious of a person, which occurs when the senses are directly affected.

The mechanism of displaying objects in the mind of a person is quite complex, since it has a direct relationship with other processes - thinking, speech, attention and memory. Personality quite objectively evaluates the visible object, can use a definite definition for its designation. It can be concluded that perception is a meaningful act that flows in the mind of a person.

The process of perception has an emotional coloring, is enormously motivated. Because of this, there may be impaired perception, cognitive dissonance. To correct the contradictions that have arisen, one can only resort to professional psychological help. Otherwise, such deviations are fraught with the development of serious diseases.

Differences in perception and sensations

Inexperienced researchers often confuse the properties of sensation and perception, reducing them to a single process. This is a gross error, since the two definitions have significant differences.

Any object, influencing the senses of a person, causes a certain effect, which carries only a subjective hue, as it is felt inside. At the same time, the reaction from the subject to whom such an effect occurs is not to be expected. Unlike sensations, when a person perceives an object, a process of objectification takes place, in other words, the object is reflected in space.

Another important difference between sensation and perception lies in the final forms that develop after the process is completed. When you feel the subject, a person experiences a certain feeling: sweet taste, loud sound, etc. When you perceive an object, an image that has a unique design pops up in the person's mind. In other words, there are certain properties of the image of perception.

Such facts allow us to say that perception and sensation are two completely different processes, despite their interaction in the process of human socialization.

Basic properties of perception

Speaking of perception, it is necessary to know that in its structure, scientists distinguish two interrelated elements: types and properties. The main emphasis is on the properties of perception in psychology, since it is this definition that makes it possible to understand the essence of this process.

So, the main properties of perception are:

  • historicity;
  • activity;
  • objectivity;
  • integrity;
  • meaningfulness;
  • constancy.

The world around us is made up of many objects, but only a few people perceive it. Understand the selectivity of the subconsciousness of the personality will help in the detailed study of each property of perception in psychology.

Historical perception

In the scientific literature on psychology, perception is denoted as a perceptual action, the formation of which requires a certain amount of time. Speaking about this property, it should be noted that perceptual action is not static, on the contrary, the image is formed over time, taking into account the very human activity and experience. Adequate alignment of the idea of ​​an object is possible only with a consistent study of the subject, which means that historicity is the key property of perception.

Perception activity

Perception of objects is impossible without effector components. Every person knows the world around him in accordance with his own worldview, abilities, needs and needs. In other words, perception directly depends on the past personality, its present. Such dependence of life experience and cognitive activity received the scientific name of apperception, which is the basis of the most important property of perception in psychology - activity.

Subject of perception

Each person, perceiving information with the help of the senses, correlates information with this or that subject. This property allows you to structure information, to study it in the form of a full-fledged image, and not as a diverse set of characteristics or sensations. Thus, objectivity is the primary basis for a normal perception of a person around the world.

Integrity of perception

The importance of this property of perception in psychology is that, thanks to the integrity of a person, it becomes possible to perceive stimuli as a collection of certain characteristics or features, and not as isolated fragments and elements of a single picture. The alignment of the holistic image occurs during the cogitative activity, when the construction of individual elements is completed in the subconscious.

Meaningful perception

Man, unlike animals, has reason, therefore perception in the person is not just a biological process. The knowledge of the subject is meaningful, in other words, a person is fully aware of the functions of a particular object, its purpose. Thanks to the comprehension of information, it is possible to achieve maximum objective perceptual action during the cognition of the surrounding world. The image of the object becomes objective, which does not violate the mental health of the individual.

Constancy of perception

Constancy is closely interrelated with other perceptual properties. Due to this, a person realizes not only the integral image of an object, but also his constancy. The object has constant shapes, dimensions, color and weight. An example of constancy of perception is the machine. A person perceives a car as an object in the same way, regardless of whether it is moving or not.

Perception is one of the most important categories of modern psychological science. A comprehensive study of this process makes it possible to understand the essence of the human subconscious, and also to avoid numerous mental illnesses.