Perception is a basic category of psychology. In the process of cognitive activity, a person deals not with individual elements of phenomena or their characteristics, but with a complex representation of the subject. Properties and parts of the object, their size, taste and smell allow you to recreate a single picture of what is happening. The process of merging such puzzles is called perception in psychological science.

What is the process of perception?

Before opening the topic “Basic properties of perception”, special attention should be paid to the physiological mechanisms of this process. Perception is a complex process of reflecting phenomena and objects in a person’s subconscious, which proceeds with a direct effect on the senses.

The mechanism for displaying objects in a person’s mind is quite complex, since it has a direct relationship with other processes — thinking, speech, attention, and memory. Personality quite objectively evaluates the visible object, can use a certain definition to designate it. It can be concluded that perception is a meaningful act occurring in the human mind.

The process of perception is emotional, colossally motivated. Because of this, there may be a violation of perception, cognitive dissonance. To correct the contradictions that have arisen is possible only by resorting to professional psychological help. Otherwise, such deviations are fraught with the development of serious diseases.

Differences of perception and sensations

Inexperienced researchers very often confuse the properties of sensation and perception, reducing them to a single process. This is a gross mistake, since the two definitions mentioned above have significant differences.

Any object, acting on the human senses, causes a certain effect, which has only a subjective shade, as it is felt inside. In this case, the reaction from the subject, which is similar effect, should not be. Unlike sensations, when a person perceives an object, the process of objectification occurs, in other words, the object is reflected in space.

Another important difference between sensation and perception lies in the final forms that develop after the completion of the process. When one feels an object, one experiences a certain feeling: a sweet taste, a loud sound, etc. When an object is perceived in a person’s consciousness, an image emerges that has a unique construction. In other words, there are certain properties of the image of perception.

Such facts suggest that perception and feeling are two completely different processes, despite their interaction in the process of human socialization.

The basic properties of perception

Speaking about perception, it is necessary to know that in its structure, scientists distinguish two interrelated elements: types and properties. The main emphasis is placed on the properties of perception in psychology, since it is this definition that allows us to understand the essence of this process.

So, the main properties of perception are:

  • historicity;
  • activity;
  • objectivity;
  • integrity;
  • meaningfulness;
  • constancy

The world around consists of many objects, but a person perceives only some. A detailed study of each property of perception in psychology will help to understand the selectivity of the subconscious of the individual.

Historical perception

In the scientific literature on psychology, perception is referred to as perceptual action, the formation of which requires a certain amount of time. Speaking about this property, it should be noted that the perceptual effect is not static, on the contrary, the image is formed over time, taking into account the human activity and experience. Adequate building of the idea of ​​the subject is possible only with a consistent study of the subject, and therefore, historicity is a key property of perception.

Perception activity

The perception of objects is impossible without effector components. Each person knows the world in accordance with their own worldview, abilities, needs and requirements. In other words, perception is directly dependent on the past of the person, his present. This dependence of life experience and cognitive activity has received the scientific name of apperception, which is the basis of the most important feature of perception in psychology - activity.

Objectivity of perception

Each person, perceiving information through the senses, relates information to a particular subject. This property allows you to structure information, to study it in the form of a full-fledged image, and not as a diverse set of characteristics or sensations. Thus, objectivity is the primary principle for a normal human perception of the world around us.

Perception integrity

The importance of this property of perception in psychology is that, thanks to integrity, a person has the opportunity to perceive stimuli as a combination of certain characteristics or characteristics, and not as isolated passages and elements of a single picture. The alignment of the holistic image occurs during the thinking activity, when the construction of individual elements is completed in the subconscious mind.

Meaningful perception

Man, unlike animals, possesses the mind, therefore the perception of a person is not just a biological process. Knowledge of the subject is meaningful, in other words, a person is fully aware of the functions of an object, its purpose. Thanks to the comprehension of information, it is possible to achieve the maximum objective perceptual action during the cognition of the surrounding world. The image of the object becomes objective, which does not violate the mental health of the individual.

Constancy perception

Constancy is closely interrelated with other perceptual properties. Due to this, a person is aware of not only the holistic image of the object, but also its constancy. The object has a constant shape, size, color and weight. An example of constancy perception is the machine. A person perceives a car as an object in the same way, regardless of whether it is moving or not.

Perception is one of the main categories of modern psychological science. A comprehensive study of this process allows us to understand the essence of the human subconscious, as well as to avoid numerous mental illnesses.