The human body is a very complex system that is controlled by an incredibly powerful computer - the brain. He sends signals to all organs and the whole body, he is responsible for what we feel, how we perceive the world around us and how we interact with it. Centuries of evolution passed, and people still could not fully understand the whole mechanism of the brain. It is the main component of the central nervous system.

Briefly about the main thing

The structure of the human brain due to its functions. The brain is covered with three types of shells and generally consists of 25 billion neurons, which are collectively called gray matter. The brain of a woman weighs a little less than the brain of a man, but this is due to the evolutionary process, and not the degree of development. On average, its mass reaches 2% of the mass of the whole body. The level of mental development does not depend on the size of the brain, nor on the size of the body.

The structure of the cerebral cortex

First of all it is necessary to tell about bark. Its thickness is 3 mm, it covers the main parts of the brain. The crust has a very complex structure, it consists of six horizontal layers, which differ in size, density, etc. It also has its specific functions. Some of its shares are responsible for smell, touch, speech, etc.

Brain structure

The structure of the human brain

This complex system has several departments, each of which has its own functions. There are such main departments:

  1. The final is about 80% of the mass of the entire brain.
  2. Intermediate - here are the thalamus and hypothalamus, which are responsible for the connection of the person with the environment.
  3. Rear - it consists of a bridge and a cerebellum, whose functions are closely related.
  4. The middle one is the “poorest” in terms of its functions.
  5. Oblong - directly connected with the spinal cord.

In addition, the brain can also be divided into the following sections:

Final brain

This department is probably the most difficult both in structure and in function. It consists of two sections: the left and right hemispheres, which are separated by a furrow. Inside the furrow, in turn, are the arch and the corpus callosum, uniting the hemispheres. The final brain is the most functional part of the entire system.

The left hemisphere is responsible for abstract thinking, and the right for specific. In addition, the ultimate brain responsible for speech, emotional, and analytical perception, receipt of information about the environment and more.

Intermediate brain

The thalamus is directly responsible for communication with the outside world, it reacts to stimuli and transmits information about them to the hemispheres. The hypothalamus regulates vegetative functions, interacts with the nervous system. Beneath it is the pituitary gland, whose functions include the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, metabolism, and control of body temperature.

Posterior brain

The functions of the cerebellum and the bridge are closely related. The structure of the brain helps to understand how the "communication" between departments. The cerebellum is located behind the bridge, which is partly a conductor. The cerebellum consists of gray and white matter, it is responsible for the coordination of movements.


The range of functions of this Department is small, but, nevertheless, they are very important. The structure of spinal cord of man is such that he is directly connected with the brain through the middle. On it are the pulses that are caused by auditory and visual stimuli. In addition, he is responsible for the so-called latent vision and turn body in the direction of the noise.


It is directly connected with the spinal cord. The structure of these two parts of the nervous system has a lot in common. Here is the white matter, which serves as a communication channel, passing from the spinal cord to the brain.

The brain is covered with several layers of shells.

  1. Soft shell interacts directly with the brain, it covers all the convolutions and furrows. In addition, it divides into the brain and nourishes it.
  2. The arachnoid is the thinnest, it comes into contact with the convolutions, but does not fill them.
  3. The hard shell consists of a very dense tissue and is connected to the skull. The space between the arachnoid and solid shells is filled with serous fluid.

Interesting Facts

  • Many healthy lifestyle advocates say alcohol kills brain cells, but in reality it’s a lie.
  • One day, a Hungarian soldier was shot and his frontal lobe suffered a lot. He survived, but he could not sleep until the end of his life.
  • There is a very common misconception that people use only a small part of the brain. This is fundamentally wrong. Our brain works around the clock and at full capacity.
  • There is also a view that people with more developed creative side have a more developed right hemisphere, and people with analytical thinking — a more developed left. It is not so, in fact, they are equally developed, just one in a result is very active.

The structure of the brain is very complex. Of course, the above departments and functions are just the basics of knowledge about this system. In fact, there are many more elements in the brain, and their connections are much more complicated. The long process of evolution, during which the functions of the brain, its size and shape changed, led to the brain becoming the most powerful "computer" on Earth.

Not a single machine has such serious capabilities, not a single device can cope with its tasks so quickly. This is such a complex system that even in an age of incredible progress in all areas of knowledge, people were unable to fully study the brain, and no one can say with certainty that it will be possible once.