The human body is a very complex system controlled by an incredibly powerful computer - the brain. He sends signals to all organs and the whole body, he is responsible for what we feel, how we perceive the world around us and how we interact with it. Fifty centuries of evolution have passed, and people still could not fully understand the whole mechanism of the brain. It is the main part of the CNS.

Briefly about the main

The structure of the human brain is due to its functions. The brain is covered with three kinds of shells and as a whole consists of 25 billion neurons, which collectively are called gray matter. The brain of a woman weighs a little less than the brain of a man, but this is due to the evolutionary process, rather than the degree of development. On average, its mass reaches 2% of the total body weight. The level of mental development does not depend on either the size of the brain or the size of the body.

Structure of the cerebral cortex

First of all, it should be told about the bark. Its thickness is 3 mm, it covers the main parts of the brain. The bark has a very complex structure, it consists of six horizontal layers that differ in size, density, etc. It also has its own specific functions. Some of its shares are responsible for sense of smell, touch, speech, etc.

Structure of the brain

The structure of the human brain

This complex system has several departments, each of which has its own functions. There are such main departments:

  1. The final is about 80% of the total brain mass.
  2. Intermediate - here are the thalamus and hypothalamus, which are responsible for the connection of a person with the environment.
  3. Rear - it consists of a bridge and a cerebellum, the functions of which are closely related.
  4. The middle is the "poorest" department in terms of functions.
  5. Oblong - directly connected to the spinal cord.

In addition, the brain can also be divided into the following departments:

The Ultimate Brain

This department is probably the most difficult in terms of structure and functions. It consists of two divisions: the left and right hemispheres, which are separated by a furrow. Inside the furrow, in turn, is a vault and a corpus callosum that unites the hemispheres. The final brain is the most functional part of the whole system.

The left hemisphere is responsible for abstract thinking, and the right for specific. In addition, the ultimate brain responsible for speech, emotional, and analytical perception, receipt of information about the environment and more.

The Intermediate Brain

The thalamus is directly responsible for communication with the outside world, it reacts to stimuli and transmits information about them to the hemisphere. The hypothalamus regulates autonomic functions, interacts with the nervous system. Under it is the pituitary gland, to the functions of which are regulation of sleep and wakefulness, metabolism, control over body temperature.


The functions of the cerebellum and bridge are closely related. The structure of the brain helps to understand how the "communication" between departments takes place. The cerebellum is located behind the bridge, which is partly a conductor. The cerebellum consists of gray and white matter, it is responsible for the coordination of movements.

Middle Brain

The range of functions of this Department is small, but, nevertheless, they are very important. The structure of spinal cord of man is such that he is directly connected with the brain through the middle. On it are the pulses that are caused by auditory and visual stimuli. In addition, he is responsible for the so-called latent vision and turn body in the direction of the noise.


It is directly connected to the spinal cord. In the structure of these two parts of the nervous system there is much in common. Here is a white substance, which serves as a communication channel, passing from the spinal to the brain.

The brain is covered with several layers of membranes.

  1. Soft shell interacts directly with the brain, it covers all the convolutions and furrows. In addition, it divides into the brain and nourishes it.
  2. The spider web is the thinnest, it comes in contact with the gyrus, but does not fill them.
  3. The hard shell consists of a very dense tissue and is connected to the skull. The space between the arachnoid and solid membranes is filled with serous fluid.

Interesting Facts

  • Many healthy lifestyle advocates say that alcohol kills brain cells, but in fact it is a lie.
  • Once a Hungarian soldier received a bullet, and his frontal lobe suffered greatly. He survived, but for the rest of his life he could not sleep.
  • There is a very common misconception that people use only a small part of the brain. This is fundamentally wrong. Our brain works around the clock and at full capacity.
  • There is also a view that people with more developed creative side have a more developed right hemisphere, and people with analytical thinking — a more developed left. It is not so, in fact, they are equally developed, just one in a result is very active.

The structure of the brain is very complicated. Of course, the above departments and functions are just the basics of knowledge about this system. In fact, the brain has many more elements, and their connections are much more complicated. The long process of evolution, during which the brain's functions changed, its size and shape, led to the fact that the brain became the most powerful "computer" on Earth.

No machine has such a serious capability, no device can not cope with the tasks so quickly. It is such a complicated system that even in an age of incredible progress in all areas of knowledge, people have not been able to fully understand the brain, and no one can say with certainty what will happen someday.