Over time, various regions of the African continent experienced the influence of certain colonizers, mastered their language and culture, or developed closedly and autonomously. African countries and their capitals have a completely different history. Some powers recently announced their statehood, others have been known as independent entities for hundreds and thousands of years. Historians and geographers have tried to divide the Black Continent into four major regions, in each of which individual states are similar in terms of linguistic, ethnic, and territorial characteristics.
North of the equator of almost the entire African continent, the population speaks different dialects of the Arabic language. The Arabs of the Middle Ages called these lands the Maghreb, which meant "western lands." Westerners were located west of Egypt, which the Arabs considered theirs to be. The northern region is populated mainly by Semitic and Hamitic peoples. Ethiopians, Arabs, Berbers and Chadian tribes inhabit the countries of Africa and their capitals in the northern part of this continent. There are also mass settlements of Nilot tribes settled in the territory of Sudan. In Ethiopia, many people profess Christianity and Judaism. But the bulk of the population of this part of Africa is Muslim.
Most of this region is occupied by the Sahara desert. In this regard, the agricultural land in the region successfully developed only in the coastal zone of the Nile. But in this region cattle breeding is well developed, and recently foreign companies have launched mining operations. In particular, salt, iron ore, rare-earth metals are mined in the Sahara desert, and the states that have access to the sea have large deposits of shelf oil, which North Africa is so rich with.
The countries and capitals of the northern part of the black continent were strongly influenced by the British, Spanish and French colonialists. Apparently, therefore, the largest countries of this territory - Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Algeria - have clear, geographically defined borders.
From the parallel just north of the equator and to the south, the population speaks Bantu languages. Therefore, it makes sense to allocate these 6613 thousand square meters. km to a separate region. These include African countries with capitals located in the central part of the African continent. Religious views of the peoples inhabiting Central Africa are a mixture of Christian missionaries with the beliefs of their ancestors. Central Africa includes such countries as Congo with the capital of Kinshasa, Gabon (the capital of Libreville), Cameroon (the capital of Yaounde), San Tome and Principe (the capital of San Tome), Central African Republic (the capital of Bangui), Equatorial Guinea (the capital of Malabo ) and other countries.
East of the Nile, all African countries and their capitals (with the exception of Egypt and Ethiopia) form the region of East Africa. About two hundred nationalities live here. The main language of communication in this region is Swahili.
This area is poor in minerals, the main source of exports are crops. A number of countries in this region: Kenya (the capital of Nairobi), Tanzania (the capital of Dodoma), Rwanda (the capital of Kigali), Burundi (the capital of Bujumbura), Uganda (the capital of Kampala). They formed their own customs union - the East African Community.
The capitals of the countries located in this region of the Black Continent bear a clear imprint of the recent colonial past. The main languages of the peoples living here are English and French. West Africa covers the territories of the Guinea rainforest, as well as the plains of Sudan and the Sahel.
In West Africa, the states of Guinea-Bissau (the capital of Bissau), Cape Verde (the capital of Praia), Mali (the capital of Bamako), Niger (the capital of Niamey), Senegal (the capital of Dakar) and others are located. Of all the countries in West Africa, Senegal is best known for tourists because of the annual Paris-Dakar Rally.
This region occupies the entire southern tip of the African continent. This area is rich in coal, oil and iron. Also here is one of the world's diamond mining centers. The countries of Africa and their capitals located in this part of the continent: Namibia (Windhoek), Swaziland (Mbabane), Lesotho (Maseru), Botswana (Gaborone) and South Africa (Pretoria) - are members of the South African Union. The indigenous population of this region consists mainly of Bushmen and Hottentots, who have preserved their culture and beliefs. In many places in South Africa, magnificent rock paintings of wild animals, scenes of war, gathering and hunting have been preserved. Already in the new time, the descendants of the Dutch colonists formed their own ethnos on these lands and became known as Boers.
As can be seen, the linguistic and ethnic composition of African peoples is extremely variegated and diverse. Most of the states of this continent in relatively recent time gained independence. Poverty, hunger, a high mortality rate - the indispensable components of the lives of the poorest African countries are side by side with the richest cultural heritage and natural wealth of the continent itself. By developing their own economies and rationally using investments, African countries are gradually getting rid of colonial remnants and in the future may become prosperous and successful states.