Various regions of the African continent over time experienced the influence of certain colonialists, mastered their language and culture, or developed closed and autonomous. The countries of Africa and their capitals have a completely different history. Some powers have recently announced their statehood, others are known as independent entities for hundreds and thousands of years. Historians and geographers have tried to divide the Black Continent into four large regions, in each of which separate states are similar in terms of linguistic, ethnic and territorial characteristics.
To the north of the equator of almost the entire territory of the African continent, the population speaks different dialects of the Arabic language. The Arabs of the Middle Ages called these lands the Maghrib, which meant "western lands". Western because they were west of Egypt, which the Arabs already considered their own. The northern region is populated mainly by Semitic and Hamitic peoples. Ethiopians, Arabs, Berbers and Chadian tribes inhabit the countries of Africa and their capitals in the northern part of this continent. Also there are mass settlements of the Nilotic tribes, which are settled in the territory of the Sudan. In Ethiopia, many people profess Christianity and Judaism. But most of the population of this part of Africa is Muslim.
Most of this region is occupied by the Sahara Desert. In connection with this, the agricultural processing industries in the region successfully developed only in the coastal zone of the Nile. But in this region cattle breeding is well developed, and recently foreign companies have developed mining operations. In particular, salt, iron ore, rare earth metals are mined in the Sahara desert, and landlocked countries have large deposits of shelf oil, which is so rich in North Africa.
The countries and capitals of the northern part of the black continent were strongly influenced by the British, Spanish and French colonialists. Apparently, therefore, the largest countries of this territory - Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Algeria - have clear, geographically delineated borders.
From the parallel just to the north of the equator and to the south the population speaks Bantu languages. Therefore, it makes sense to allocate these 6613 thousand square meters. km to a separate region. This includes the countries of Africa with capitals, located in the central part of the African continent. The religious views of the peoples inhabiting central Africa are a mixture of the efforts of Christian missionaries with the beliefs of their ancestors. Central Africa includes countries such as Congo with the capital of Kinshasa, Gabon (the capital of Libreville), Cameroon (the capital of Yaounde), Sao Tome and Principe (the capital of Sao Tome), the Central African Republic (the capital of Bangui), Equatorial Guinea (the capital of Malabo ) and other countries.
To the east of the Nile, all the countries of Africa and their capitals (with the exception of Egypt and Ethiopia) form the region of East Africa. Here live about two hundred nationalities. The main language of communication in this region is Swahili.
This area is poor in mineral resources, the main source of exports are agricultural crops. A number of countries in this region: Kenya (the capital of Nairobi), Tanzania (the capital of Dodoma), Rwanda (the capital of Kigali), Burundi (the capital of Bujumbura), Uganda (the capital of Kampala). They formed their own customs union - the East African Community.
The capitals of the countries located in this region of the Black continent bear a clear imprint of the recent colonial past. The main languages of the peoples living here are English and French. West Africa covers the territories of the tropical forests of Guinea, as well as the plains of Sudan and Sahel.
In West Africa, the states of Guinea-Bissau (the capital of Bissau), Cape Verde (the capital of Praia), Mali (the capital of Bamako), Niger (the capital of Niamey), Senegal (the capital of Dakar) and others are located in West Africa. Of all the states of West Africa, tourists are most famous for Senegal because of the annual "Rally Paris-Dakar".
This region occupies the entire southern tip of the African continent. This area is rich in coal, oil, iron. Also here is one of the world's centers for diamond mining. The countries of Africa and their capitals located in this part of the mainland: Namibia (Windhoek), Swaziland (Mbabane), Lesotho (Maseru), Botswana (Gaborone) and South Africa (Pretoria) are members of the South African Union. The indigenous population of this region mainly consists of Bushmen and Hottentots, who have preserved their culture and beliefs. In many parts of South Africa, there are magnificent rock carvings of wild animals, scenes of war, gathering and hunting. Already in modern times the descendants of the Dutch colonists formed their own ethnos on these lands and began to be called Boers.
As can be seen, the linguistic and ethnic composition of African peoples is extremely diverse and diverse. Most of the states of this continent have gained independence in relatively recent times. Poverty, hunger, high mortality rates are indispensable components of the life of the poorest African countries, alongside the richest cultural heritage and natural resources of the continent itself. By developing its own economy and using its investments wisely, African countries are gradually getting rid of colonial remnants and in the future, they may become prosperous and successful states.