Stoglavy Cathedral is the most important event not only in the history of Russia, but also the Russian Orthodox Church. It took place in 1551. It is called the hundred-headed, since it includes 100 parts of resolutions (acts or regulations) - separate chapters. Stoglav is a kind of legislation that touches many areas of life. And the Church should follow this document strictly. However, some introductions remained to exist only on paper, in practice nobody followed them.
Venue and participants
- metropolitan Macarius - the chairman;
- archbishop Akakios of the Tver Diocese;
- archbishop Guria of the Smolensk Diocese;
- archbishop Kasyan of the Ryazan Diocese;
- archbishop Cyprian of the Perm Diocese;
- archbishop Nikandr from the Rostov diocese;
- archbishop Savva of the Krutitsy Diocese;
- archbishop Trifon of the Suzdal Diocese;
- archbishop Theodosius of the Novgorod Diocese;
- archbishop Theodosius of the Kolomna Diocese.
History of creation
Ivan the Terrible at the beginning of 1551 began to convene the Stoglavy Cathedral. He took on this mission because he was convinced that he was the successor to the Byzantine emperors. In the second chapter of Staglov there is a mention that the hierarchs felt great joy at the royal invitation. This is primarily due to the need to resolve many issues that were particularly significant in the middle of the XVI century. These included strengthening church discipline among the clergy, questions about the powers of the church court. It was necessary to fight against the vicious behavior of clergy and other representatives of the church. Many problems were also with the usury of the monasteries. The struggle with the remnants of paganism continued. In addition, it became necessary to unify church rituals and services. The order of correspondence of church books, the construction of churches and the writing of icons should be strictly regulated. Therefore, the Stoglavy Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church was necessary.
The cathedral began with a solemn prayer on the occasion of the opening. It happened in the Moscow Assumption Cathedral. Next, Ivan the Terrible read his appeal to the participants, which can be regarded as his early work. It was already possible to notice the artistic style of the king. He talked about his early orphanhood, the mistreatment of the boyars, repented of his sins and asked for repentance. After that, the king introduced a new lawsuit, which the council quickly approved.
To date, researchers can not give the exact date when the cathedral began its work. The first chapter indicates February 23. There are two versions of what happened on this day:
- The meeting of the cathedral began.
- The Council Code was compiled.
All work proceeded in two stages: a meeting (and discussion of issues) and material processing.
The first chapter also contains a sample program: the cathedral gives answers to the king's questions. He put forward various problems for conciliar discussion. Participants could only express their opinions on the proposed topics. In total, the king offered 69 questions. The compiler of Staglava clearly did not set himself the task of fully revealing the corrections with which he worked. Instead of answers, the compiler proposes documents in accordance with which decisions were made. Canonical literature did not allow decisions that did not correspond to it. Some literature is reflected in the first chapter:
- the rules of the holy apostles, the fathers of the church;
- the rules that were established at the councils of the clergy;
- teachings of canonized saints.
- Chapters 1–4 are information about the opening of the council, participants, reasons and goals;
- the royal questions were in two parts, the first 37 were reflected in the 5th chapter, the second 32 - in the 41st chapter;
- answers are in chapters 6–40 and chapters 42–98;
- chapter 99 talks about the embassy at the Trinity Monastery;
- The 100th chapter contains the answer of Joseph. He offered a number of comments and additions to Stoglav.
Getting acquainted with Stoglav, it is possible to estimate how strong was the role of the king. But most of all you can see how different are the opinions between the king and Macarius. Each of them pursued his goals and tried to push them forward.
Goals of the Stoglav Cathedral
Stoglavy Cathedral in 1551 considered the main purpose of overcoming the “disorder” in the life of the Russian Church. It was necessary to equip and organize all aspects of the spiritual life. During the work a huge list of questions and messages was heard. All of them described the shortcomings and difficulties of church-folk life. The council discussed the problems of church administration, the observance of the church statute in worship. For the implementation of the latter task, it was necessary to elect the clerks of elders, deanery In addition, much attention was paid to the problems of electing competent and worthy servants of the altar. There were questions about the establishment of religious schools, where the priests would prepare. It would also promote literacy among the population.
Solutions of the Stoglavy Cathedral
The hundred-head council gathered and systematized all the norms of the current law of the Church. The decrees of Staglav speak of hierarchal duties, ecclesiastical court, discipline of the clergy, monks and laity, worship services, monastic estates, public education, and so on.
Morality and control over life
The unrest that had slandered the church and threatened its future, was nevertheless recognized by the council. That is why the institution of clergy elders was introduced everywhere. In each city, the number of elders was determined individually. So, for Moscow 7 priests elders were determined. This number corresponded to the number of cathedrals that were central to their district. Popov elders also had assistants - ten. The latter were elected from the priests. In the villages and volosts only ten priests were elected. Duties were fixed in Stoglav: control over the proper conduct of service in the subordinate churches and priests' deannings.
An important decision was also made on “twin” monasteries. Both men and women lived in them.
The hundred-head cathedral of the Russian church condemned the people's atrocities and remnants of paganism: judicial fights, drunkenness, skomorosheskie presentation, gambling.
The decrees of the Stoglavy Cathedral also concerned heretical and godless books. These included the Secreta secretorum, “Aristotle” - a collection of medieval wisdom, astronomical maps of Emanuel Ben Jacob. It was also forbidden to communicate with foreigners.
Most of the decisions of the cathedral relate to worship.
The double-haired constitution (with the sign of the cross) was legalized precisely in 1551. It was also legalized alleluia. Over time, these decisions were the main arguments of the Old Believers.
There is an opinion that it was Maxim Grek who had a hand in that the holy books began to be corrected. It was also decided to open the Moscow printing house. But it did not last long. It printed the corrected books.
Icon “Holy Trinity”
During the cathedral, the very important question of the iconography of the Holy Trinity was also considered. It consisted in discussing the traditional Orthodox image of the Trinity as three angels.
Some researchers believe that the participants in the council did not give a definite answer, or the question remained unresolved. One thing we know for sure: there is only the inscription “Holy Trinity” without inscriptions and crosshairs. However, the fathers could not give a theological rationale for this prescription, referring to Andrei Rublev and ancient specimens. This turned out to be a weak point of the Stoglavy Cathedral, which led to sad consequences. Most of the surviving icons of the Holy Trinity do not have cross-haloes and highlighting inscriptions.
Another important issue, inextricably linked with the writing of the Trinity, was the question of the “figurativeness of the Divine” (43rd chapter). The text of the decree refers in its direct meaning as if to the Divinity of Christ. But the problem is that the Divine is inconceivable. Most likely, this refers to an unknown image. And indeed, under Stoglav, there were three image manners: traditional, Fatherland and New Testament.
The New Testament Trinity has the most famous image in the Blagoveshchensk cathedral on a four-part icon. She wrote the master commissioned by Protopopus Sylvestre. Do not notice then this image was impossible. In addition, the king referred to this icon when the issue of depicting non-holy people on icons was discussed.
The cathedral had reasons to hush up the iconography of the Holy Trinity. First of all, no one had a clear idea how to depict the Divine on icons. Secondly, some researchers claim that the cathedral and the metropolitan did not have unanimity.
Determined the relationship between spiritual power and civil. This happened on the principle of the independence of the church in church affairs. Stoglavy Cathedral decided to cancel the "non-convicted" letters. As a result, all parish prints and monasteries became cognizable to their bishops. Secular courts could not prosecute clergymen. But since they could not immediately abolish the existing system, they decided to give the priests the right to participate in the courts through their own elected elders and the Sots. The last forgotten to define the role in court.
Apparently, the question of land ownership was raised at the cathedral, but it was not included in the Council Code. But after a while, the 101st chapter appeared - “The Verdict on the Demesne”. In this document, the king and the metropolitan reflected their desire to reduce the growth of church land holdings. In the last chapter were fixed five major decisions:
- Archbishops, bishops and monasteries are not allowed to buy without royal permission from any fiefdom.
- At the mention of the soul, land contributions are allowed, but it is necessary to specify the condition and procedure for their redemption by relatives.
- Landmarks of some areas are not allowed to sell people of other cities patrimony. It is also forbidden to donate patrimonies to monasteries without a report to the king.
- The verdict has no retroactive effect, it does not apply to transactions made before the Stoglavy Cathedral.
- A sanction has been established for breach of contract: the patrimony is confiscated in favor of the sovereign, and no money is returned to the seller.
Value of the cathedral
The reforms of Ivan the Terrible carried in themselves great importance:
- they contributed to the strengthening of autocracy;
- the alignment of forces within the feudal class in favor of the nobility has changed;
- royal personal authority was strengthened;
- began to create a caste society. Each layer had its own internal organization and its own self-government bodies. It was possible to negotiate with the authorities;
- grandees lost some of their rights and influence. But now they had a new weight and significance, becoming the top of the emerging nobility. When the role and importance of the nobility associations began to grow, the nobility relied on their support. Thus, she took a more independent position in relation to her monarch.
Stoglavy Cathedral, in short, produced a fixation of the legal norms of the internal life of the Church. A kind of code of relations between the clergy, society and the state was also developed. The Russian church gained independence.
At the cathedral, it was confirmed that the double-faced sign and august hallelujah are correct and saving. But the controversy surrounding the correct spelling has not abated for a long time.
Church Stoglavy Cathedral required to write all the icons on the old model, without making any changes. At the same time, it was necessary to improve the quality of iconography, as well as the moral level of icon painters. The entire 43rd chapter was devoted to this problem. Sometimes she delved into the most different details of relationships and life situations. This question remains the most extensive and unclear.
Zemsky and Stoglavy cathedrals became equal.
For Ivan the Terrible it was necessary to limit the church-monastic land ownership. The state needed free land to provide the estates with a growing military-service class. At the same time, the hierarchy was going to firmly uphold the property inviolability of the Church. And also it was necessary to legalize the many general church transformations that have arisen.
Stoglavy Cathedral can not be called successful, since many of the issues discussed were the cause of discord between the Old Believers and the Orthodox. And over time, this dispute only flared up.
100 years later
Therefore, the work of Stoglavy Cathedral was very disliked by the followers of Patriarch Nikon, reformers and persecutors of the church. After 100 years - in 1666-1667 - at the Moscow Cathedral, the New Believers not only canceled the oath that was laid on those who were not baptized two-pointedly, but also completely rejected the entire Stoglavy Cathedral, condemning some dogmas.
The Moscow Council claimed that the provisions of Staglav were written unreasonably, simply and ignorantly. It is not surprising that soon many doubted the authenticity of this collection. For a long time, the heated debate between the dissenters, the Old Believers and representatives of the official Church, did not abate. The first built the cathedral to the rank of unshakable law. The latter condemned the ruling as the fruit of error. All participants of the Stoglavy Cathedral were accused of ignorance. Wanting to wash away the shame, opponents of the resolutions put forward a version about the nonparticipation of the 1551 cathedral to Stoglav.