The lexical system of the language is many-sided and complex. Therefore, a typology of various lexical tools has not yet been developed, since it would have had to be able to recreate a diverse range of human feelings. However, there are three main groups. Expressive means to classify, dividing into phonetic, syntactic and lexical.
A path, therefore, is a pictorial device consisting in the use of an expression or a word in a figurative sense. The purpose of this technique is not only to create a new meaning, but also to enrich, adorn the speech, making it more expressive. It is necessary to distinguish paths and figures of speech. Examples of tropes: comparison, hyperbole, metaphor, epithet, personification and paraphrase.
Figure of speech
Figures of speech are special syntactic constructions that serve to enhance expressiveness. These include antithesis, oxymoron, gradation, rhetorical exclamation, rhetorical question, rhetorical appeal, ellipsis, syntactic parallelism, lexical repetition, epiphora, anaphor, default, inversion, multi-union, unionless.
The expressiveness of speech - features of its structure, allowing to maintain the interest and attention of the reader (listener).
Syntactic parallelism is an auxiliary means by which the antithesis is created, since a similar or identical construction of structures emphasizes words that are opposite in their meaning. This is the same construction of nearby offers.
Also, antitheses can be built on the basis of speech antonyms. Example: “They agreed. Wave and stone. ”(A. S. Pushkin).
We continue to describe the figures of speech. Oxymoron is a bright stylistic device, which consists in creating some new concept with a combination of words that have contrasting meanings. This is done in order to create a bright and complex image and set off incompatible logical values. Examples: “clever fool”, “cheerful sadness”, “black whiteness”. Like the antithesis, this figure is like a meeting place for various antonyms. In an oxymoron, their combination in a pure form is rare. Example: “bad good man”. Words that have the opposite meaning are in most cases connected as defined and defining (“expensive low cost”, “large trifles”), so we cannot say that these are 100% antonyms, since the latter should belong to one part of speech. Russian poets created bright figures of speech - oxymorons. Examples: “wilderness of nature” (Pushkin), “self-confidently confused” (I. Severyanin).
Often found an oxymoron in the names of works of fiction. Example: Y. Bondarev's novel “Hot Snow”.
These figures of speech are also used in journalistic style, often in headlines to attract attention. Examples: “retreat forward”, “cold is a hot season”.
This is a stylistic figure, which consists in the sequential injection or, on the contrary, the weakening of images, comparisons, metaphors, epithets and other means of expression. Emotionally expressive selection of certain words is then enhanced when they are repeated in one or several sentences in the neighborhood. Repetition in the complex sentence of the same word is often carried out for logical reasons. It serves to establish between members of the proposal a clear semantic connection or clarification of the idea expressed.
In artistic speech, very often several words are repeated not only in a complex, but also in a simple sentence. This is done in order to create greater emotional expressiveness. Lexical repetition is called this figure of speech. Examples: “On the canvas is already a fair man, living a solid and healthy life, the life of which the intellectual dreams", "This is not a fairy tale, a fairy tale will be ahead."
Verbal repetition is particularly expressive when the word is at the beginning of two or more adjacent phrases. This figure of speech is called an anaphor (otherwise, unity of command). Examples: “At least something would appear. Shadow though. If only the policeman’s whistle sounded. Nothing, ”“ These willows and birches, these drops are these tears ”(A. Fet, the portrait is presented below).
Often the stringing of synonyms generates gradation when the next one strengthens (or weakens) the value of the previous one.
This syntactic means is that one of the main members of a sentence (or both) is missing. Ellipsis belongs to the destructive shapes, because it destroys the syntactic links that exist in the language. This figure implies the “disappearance” of statements fragments. It is considered at the same time that they can be restored, based on the meaning of the whole. One or two words are the normal norm for gaps. However, large syntactic blocks may also remain outside the scope of the sentence (especially if parallelism accompanies ellipsis).
It should be noted that this construction assumes the presence of the closest context. Otherwise, the reader may not understand it or perceive it inadequately. Therefore, ellipses are a means of expressiveness, consisting in the omission of a sentence member, which is implied. An example is in Zhukovsky: “We sat down - in ashes, hailstones - in dust. “.
Using these syntactic figures of speech, we give dynamism to the statement, as well as the intonation of live speech, the text becomes more expressive. Most often, the predicate is missing to create an ellipse. Example: “Peace to the people”. This figure in the letter is reproduced with a dash. Ellipsis, as a stylistic device, was particularly popular in slogans.
Rhetorical appeal, exclamation, question
Rhetorical appeal (exclamation) is a specific appeal to something or someone. It serves not only to name the addressee of speech, but also to express the relation to a certain object, its characteristics.
Anaphora and epiphora
Anaphora - repeat at the beginning of a sentence of individual turns or words. This technique is used to enhance thought, phenomenon, image: “How to convey the beauty of the sky? How to tell about the feelings that overwhelm the soul at this moment? ”
Epiphora is a figure in which several sentences have the same ending, which reinforces the meaning of a certain concept, image, etc.
It is a reverse word order. The subject under the direct order usually stands before the predicate. The agreed definition is in front of the word being defined (after the definition - unmatched), after the control word an addition is put, and before the verb - the circumstance of the action. When using inversion, words are put in a different sequence that does not comply with these grammatical rules. This means of expression is quite strong. It is usually used in emotional speech.
The master of inversion is Master Yoda from Star Wars.
It is a syntactic device, which consists in the conscious use of a thought that is not fully expressed, when it is possible to supplement it to the reader himself. Silence on the letter is expressed by ellipsis. Behind him is an “unexpected” pause that reflects the speaker’s excitement. As a stylistic device, it is often used in colloquial language.
Because and mnogonogie
Other stylistic figures of speech are non-union and multi-union. Non-union is an intentional omission between members of a single sentence or between offers of a connecting union. This gives expression a saturation of impressions, swiftness. “Swede, Russian - chops, chops, cuts. ”(A. S. Pushkin).
A multi-union is a figure that consists of intentional repetition for the emotional and logical delineation of the concepts of writing alliances.
These are the main figures of expressive speech.