Pushkin is a great Russian poet. In his work can be traced several directions of the lyrics. One of them is freedom-loving poems, a vivid presentation is the Anchar written in 1927.
Prerequisites for writing the poem “Anchar”
Let's talk about them. Pushkin writes a poem "Anchar" immediately returning from exile. At first, the poet believes that the persecution by the state is over.
He was wrong: the poet is being constantly monitored by the state security agencies. It was this fact that made Pushkin think about freedom. So was written "Anchar", which reflected the grief of the poet on freedom from the state yoke.
Pursued by the people of Benkendorf, Pushkin recalls the legend of a tropical deadly tree. Only a few local tribes come to him to permeate the stelae with poison.
The plot of the poem
In the poem "Anchar" Pushkin tells the story of a poisonous tree growing in the desert. It exists alone: other plants do not live nearby, animals bypass it. Anchar is so poisonous that it exudes death not only its flesh, but also the wind, walking in the branches of a tree, and the rain falling on the bark.
Pushkin emphasizes that anchar is a product of evil itself. And now the slave is sent to this evil by the ruler, so that he may bring poison. The slave sets off, collects the "mortal pitch" and brings the "master". Drinking poisonous vapors, the forced man dies. The king, with tar, is poisoning the arrows that he intends to use against his enemies.
Anchar - the embodiment of world evil
The story of Anchara is like a ballad - a poem-story with an unexpected, often tragic ending. There are three topical issues that Pushkin raises. "Anchar" - a poem about world evil - the first of them. It is not by chance that a poisonous tree grows away from living beings, on the edge of the universe. Removing it from everyone, nature just wanted to create a balance: after all, where there is good, there must be evil. Animals understand this. In this case, they are smarter than people.
The thirst for world domination prompted the king to send his slave to the anarch to bring poison, thanks to which the army would be invincible. Pushkin says that it is people who are the disseminators of evil. And both are guilty: the king and the slave. That is why they are equalized by the poet (“a person sent a person”). Yes, their motives are different: the lord is driven by the dream of power, and the slave is driven by elementary fear. Having completed the task, the slave dies - this Pushkin negates his fears. After all, if a slave had refused to fulfill the will of the king, he would have suffered the same fate.
It is noteworthy that "disastrous arrows" are sent to "neighbors". Usually this word is mentioned in a positive sense. Pushkin wanted to say that the king does not wage wars with neighboring states, on the contrary, they have good relations. Blow the lord will strike unexpectedly. This underlines his anger and deceit. Envy and fear - these are two feelings that provoke the spread of evil.
Reflection of political views of Pushkin
Another thought that Pushkin is trying to convey to the reader: “Anchar” is a poem about the autocracy existing at that time with its inherent serfdom. Using the allegorical tree anchar - Pushkin speaks of the terrible evil that brings with itself the unlimited power of the king. The poet draws an analogy between the lord of the poem and the autocrat of Russia.
The resignation, the criminal humility of the slave, is emphasized. The king only needs a glance to make his servant "Obediently drip off his way." And after all, both Vladyka and the slave are aware that a trip to a tree promises death. Nevertheless, the slave does not oppose and fulfills the will of the owner. In fact, both the refusal and the execution of the order carry the servant to death. Having chosen the latter, the slave becomes the same culprit of the situation as the “cruel master”. The description of the servant is given in more detail, which makes his figure ambiguous, lets you wonder if he had a choice.
All Russia, which has unleashed aggressive wars in the struggle for world domination, is anchar. Pushkin focuses attention on this (the motive of the aggressive war is not accidental). Trying to secure the first place in the world, not sparing the lives of people, the country is the embodiment of evil.
Features of the composition
In the poem "Anchar" Pushkin adheres to a clear linear composition. It is divided into two parts: in the first, the tree of evil is described - anchar, in the second - the actions of the lord and slave, who went to the tree for poison. It would seem that the images of the servant and the king should be compositionally opposed to each other. Pushkin isn’t like that: he intends to avoid opposing the heroes, on the contrary, he calls them equal: “a man was sent to the man to the man.”
Contrasted the world of people and nature. Smart animals do not approach Anchar, unlike people who deliberately make contact with evil. Nature itself has placed the anchar on the edge of the universe.
Anchars and the king are compared in the poem: the latter has become a kind of anchar for the world of people, because with arrows and poison it bears death.
Means of artistic expression
After an artistic analysis of Pushkin’s poem “Anchar”, it can be concluded that it is rich in visual means:
- Metaphors (anchar - a symbol of world evil).
- Epithets (“domineering gaze”, “black tuft”, “obedient arrows”).
- Oxymoron is a juxtaposition of the incomparable: "the green of the dead branches." Green is a symbol of life, used with the epithet "dead."
- The use of Old Slavonic (“heel”, “drip”, “cold”) gives the text a biblical, universal, solemn sound.
- Comparisons ("Anchar, as a formidable sentinel").
What should the analysis of “Anchar” (plan)
In the school curriculum when studying the topic “Pushkin. “Anchar” "analysis of the poem is inevitable. This is the topic of a separate lesson in grade 8. It is necessary to take into account all aspects and features, which Pushkin paid attention to in the poem “Anchar”. Analysis of the plan is as follows:
- Creative reference: in what years of life a poem was written, facts of biography.
- The plot of the poem.
- Features composition and genre.
- Artistic originality of the poem.
- The idea and its development (to describe the three issues raised in the poem).
- Conclusion: the place of the poem in the work of the poet.
The poem “Anchar” by A. S. Pushkin is a bright representative of the freedom-loving and philosophical poetry of the poet. Written in a fit of a sense of justice, it remains relevant to this day. After all, the repartition of the world (warriors are still going on) is even bigger than in the 19th century. The older our planet gets, the more evil and injustice becomes.