A predicate is an integral part of almost any sentence. Regardless of how it is expressed and expressed in principle, it determines the subject matter. This member of the sentence can denote both the action and some feature of the subject, answering various questions (from the banal and well-known "what did?" To the more difficult to perceive "what?"). All this shows that there are different ways of expressing the predicate. So what are they, and what influences the division of the predicates into different types?
Ways of expression
As you know, the ways of expressing the subject and the predicate may be different. The first, for example, can be expressed:
- noun or pronoun (Man / He appeared );
- infinitive (Work - our direct duty );
- phraseology(Augean stables - here is the most precise definition of this room ) etc.
The same can be said about the predicate. Limit this sentence member only verb would be a huge mistake. It can be represented by:
- the noun (Knowledge is power );
- numeral (Three times five - fifteen );
- adjective, and even in a comparative form (Below him a stream of lighter azure );
- and verbs in all their manifestations, in different moods and forms, verbs combined with particles, infinitives and so on.
That is, in principle, it is already clear that the diversity here is colossal. It will be better to imagine ways of expressing the predicate table, given below:
Methods for expressing the verbal predicate
A simple verbal predicate
Let's start, perhaps, with the first type. A simple verbal predicate is probably found most often. It is expressed in verbs in any form, namely:
- A verb in any inclination (I'll talk to him about it. I would have gone, but I can not. Come in! )
- The Infinitive (My duty is to survive )
- A verb in combination with a particle (Let's go to the Caucasus! )
- Phraseology (And he again around and around walks )
- Interjections, which denote the action (And he is such a whip my hand) .
A simple verbal predicate - nuances
There are certain nuances. Very often the future time of an indicative mood is not perceived as a simple verbal predicate - it also consists of two words. But this will be the same mistake as not counting ASG (this is how the name of this type of predicate is shortened) with a verb in combination with the particle.
Another controversial issue is the distinction of the idiom (although there is more to the point – nonfree phrase) and compound nominal predicate. The first is easily replaced by a single verb (We were given an order - We were ordered. Why did you hang your head? "Why are you sad?" ), whereas the composite nominal predicate this trick does not work, the only thing – you can replace the verb-conjunction with the word “was” (He sat sad - He was sad ).
Composite verb predicate
Moving on to the next type of verb – verb compound. Here everything is as simple as in simple – is the auxiliary verb and adjoins the infinitive (He wanted to study ). The only nuance in this case is a clear selection of this most auxiliary verb, because it can be represented not only by it:
- Phrasal verbs of the beginning and end of the action (Stop arguing / Started acting )
- Modal verbs of intention, ability, will, desire (We were going to visit. I can run. I want to be free. I want to escape)
- Verbs of emotions(I'm afraid to fall in love.) I hate lying. )
- Some impersonal verbs (It is worth noting. It should be thoughtful )
- Brief names are adjectives, the full form of which is either completely absent or has a different meaning (Nice to meet you. Gouraz to invent. We are free to choose )
- Some nouns (Master to lie. A lover of a walk )
- You can and you can not (You can note. It is impossible not to recognize ь)
- Phraseology (He is eager to come )
The methods of expressing a predicate with examples are the best way to understand this, though not very tangled, but still voluminous topic. The main thing in a compound nominal predicate is to understand the mechanism of its formation. It is a verb (or something that replaces it) plus an infinitive. Believe this formula - and you will succeed.
The compound nominal predicate
The methods of expressing the predicate continue to be studied with a compound nominal predicate - the most unloved among schoolchildren. Such its unpopularity is caused by the fact that it can sometimes be very difficult to distinguish it from a simple verbal predicate. But first things first.
The verbal ligament
Compound nominal predicate consists of two parts – the verbal ligament and the name part. It should be noted that if we are talking about the present, the verbal ligament. (He is beautiful ). The verbal ligament is most often represented:
Yes, sometimes it is very difficult to single out an independent predicate with secondary members. A short test "Methods of expressing a predicate" will help us to sort out a little with this difficult topic.
- Yes, what's the point of wandering around here! - It's senseless to roam about parks .
- Lying on the hill. "How long can I stay here ?!"
- He could live an ascetic, not wanting anything. "And how are you going to live here?"
In these sentences, there are different ways of expressing the predicate, try to figure out which types of the predicate are represented in each sentence.
Continuing the theme of “Compound nominal predicate” and the study of its nominal parts. It can be expressed:
- In the noun (Was an actress )
- By the adjective in all its forms - short and complete, the degrees of comparison (We are very glad to see you. A perfect voice ).
- The participle in all its forms is also short and complete and still passive and real (Kthe nigga is read. A young man reading )
- The pronoun (The sky is yours )
- Name numeral, and any combination of numbers (Family of five to thirty – five. Building height – two meters)
- An adverb (I'm a little bit like her )
- Interjection (Your thoughts are guard! )
- Phraseological and non-free phrase (His soul for me is a mystery with seven seals )
As you can see, the ways of expressing of the predicate vary enormously – if in a simple tense, and remember-it really is nothing, then with a compound nominal will have some trouble. But with proper desire and all will be well.
The ways of expressing the subject and the predicate are the subject of long and detailed scientific lectures. The most important thing in all this is to realize that the main members of the sentence are expressed, they can be different parts of speech, sometimes not even single ones, that they can have different types and sometimes it is very, very difficult to understand at first glance what is before you. The only teacher here is practice, and besides that, you will understand how to express the predicate table, which you can constantly supplement with examples.