For a long time, property was understood only as power over a certain material good. However, in 1840 the French economist Pierre Proudhon determined that such an understanding of property is nothing more than ordinary theft. After all, during the acquisition of material value by one person, the second party is actually deprived of this value.
Only at first glance, property should be understood as the relation of a particular person to a thing. In reality, property as an economic category is a relationship between persons who are conditionally divided into non-owners and owners.
Main features of ownership
At present, the following series of basic property features are singled out:
- the presence of both one and several, many property subjects, between which relations are established;
- the existence of relations between the subjects associated with the appropriation of certain material goods;
- direct connection of the above relations with the alienation of material goods from the subjects;
- appropriation of activities aimed at creating material goods;
- presence of direct dependence of the received income of the person from the goods available for him, real estate, means of production.
Proceeding from the main features, property as an economic category is a relationship developed between historical entities in the course of historical development regarding the alienation or appropriation of material goods.
According to the functions determine what role property plays in the sphere of social relations. First of all, it is the basis of the economic system. If we talk about a market economy, then the predominant part is occupied by private property.
The state of the society directly determines the specific classes, groups and strata of the subjects, as well as the possibility of access to the application of the achievements of all spheres of production.
Among other things, the economic category of property is the result of the historical development of human society. The decisive driving force here is the development of production in the course of the transformation of the economic system as a whole.
Despite the fact that within the boundaries of a particular economic system there are prevailing forms of ownership, this does not exclude the existence of other transitional forms, for example, remnants of the past or original rudiments of transition to a qualitatively new system.
In the end, one of the main functions of property can be considered the possibility of a transition from one form to another evolutionary path. The main operating mechanism of this process is healthy competition, the struggle for survival, the replacement of the old and the replacement of it with a qualitatively new one.
Types of property in the economy
There are several separate types of property:
- Labor ownership is available to any subject and citizen. This species is based on personal labor, has the widest distribution, but does not have a dominant status in any economic system.
- Collective, private property – interest of the owner here is being implemented through the organization of various forms of property rights: cooperatives, joint stock companies, partnerships, private enterprises.
- Intellectual property is only a specific, non-material form of property.
The concept of property in the sphere of production relations
There are a number of signs, according to which the property occupies a decisive position in the field of industrial relations. So, to consider the totality of material goods that fall under the definition of ownership should be the Foundation of public relations as a whole.
Directly on the property depends on the appropriation of certain provisions of society, the presence or absence for these people of the possibility of using specific factors of production. For each economic system is characterized by a predominant, specific form of ownership, which acts as a kind of driving force for the development of the entire production sphere.
The concept of appropriation of property
The appropriation is understood as the acquisition of an economic connection between material goods and the entity to which these goods begin to belong. At the same time, to assign means to be active in relation to personal property objects.
The organization of any production is inherently nothing other than the appropriation by the subjects of natural resources and energy in order to meet the demands of society and their own needs. Proceeding from this, if the appropriation rarely goes without production and the emergence of new material goods, then production takes place in the environment of a specific form of ownership.
Attribution is expressed in the absence of legal opportunities for the use of certain material goods, including the process and results of production, without entering into relations with the owner.
The concept of property alienation
Consider property as an economic category from the position not only of appropriation, but also alienation of material or intellectual property. Under alienation in this case it is necessary to understand the forced or voluntary deprivation of a particular subject of the possibility of using certain benefits in consumption or production.
A vivid example of the process of alienation of property is the procedure for the sale of property. Alienation can also arise through the seizure of the bulk of production assets by one part of society, when the other part of it remains without the necessary means of subsistence.
Starting from the concept of alienation, it can be argued that property as an economic category is the establishment of relations between entities associated with the appropriation of material goods not by indirect or indirect labor.
Public property is a separate special category of property. This concept implies the appropriation of the benefits and results of production in a joint way.
Public property does not allow the division of society into separate layers and classes, and is also the basis for the emergence of mutual, unselfish cooperation and mutual assistance between the subjects of society.
The meaning of the existence of property is to create conditions for the legitimate right to acquire by the subjects of material wealth, natural wealth, the results of labor and production. Moreover, such rights are granted, first of all, to persons who are able to extract from the property the greatest benefit, as well as those who appreciate it higher. After all, in the final analysis, only the owner enjoys both positive and negative results of activity in relation to the existing property.