Each mother knows firsthand the situation when the child has caught a cold and a runny nose has appeared. In ordinary cases, simple nasal drops help to quickly relieve nasal congestion. However, if the disease is protracted and the usual funds from the cold do not help, the doctor can prescribe treatment with special - compound drops.
Indications for use
Complex drops (compound) - a drug for the treatment of the common cold, which has more than one component in its composition. Combined drops are able to act simultaneously in several directions simultaneously, thereby speeding up the healing process.
Complex drops for children are not appointed very often, since many components are only allowed to use at a certain age. But if the catarrhal disease has become protracted or complications have arisen, the doctor can, at his discretion, compose a compound droplet recipe taking into account the age and physiological characteristics of the child.
Apply drops with the following diseases:
- Rhinitis (acute, chronic).
- Sinusitis (acute, chronic).
In addition, complex drops can be prescribed by a doctor if the child has an allergic reaction to a particular kind of nasal drops.
The composition of drops for the nose is determined individually and only by the treating ENT doctor.
The choice of components of complex drops depends on many factors:
- forms of the common cold (allergic, physiological, bacterial);
- severity of the disease (acute, chronic);
- the nature of discharge from the nasal cavity (thick or liquid, purulent or transparent, etc.);
- features of the body (the presence of contraindications to individual medicinal products);
- the presence of complications (otitis, sinusitis);
- the age of the child;
- presence of allergy to any drug component.
What do complex drops consist of? Their composition is diverse, as a rule, it is formed by the attending physician depending on the form of the ailment. Each ingredient in compound drops can also act as a separate drug.
Prepare such a solution can only be a pharmacist in a pharmacy with a special department for the preparation of prescription drugs. Independently such a solution can be prepared, if you follow the doctor's instructions, observe dose components and sterility when cooking.
Important! It is not recommended to prepare a drop solution, following the recipes placed on the Internet resources! The recipe should be written by a competent specialist.
Advantages and disadvantages in the use of composite drops
The use of compound drops in the treatment adhere to old-age otolaryngologists. However, most modern doctors share the opinion that composite drops are much more effective than modern combined remedies for the common cold and sinusitis such as Vibrocil, Polidex, Afrin, Avamis, etc. In order to understand what is better for the treatment of the common cold, below is a list of the disadvantages and advantages of the combined drops.
Advantages of complex drops
- Relative cheapness of components - the price for such a solution is low, since the dose of each component is minimal and is selected for one therapy and for one person.
- A broader spectrum of action - combined drops act on all unpleasant symptoms of the common cold, and the treatment takes place in a shorter time.
- The selection of components takes place individually, taking into account the physiological characteristics of the child.
- Ease of use.
Disadvantages of complex drops
- The content of highly active irritants.
- The presence of side effects.
- Short shelf life.
- Inadmissibility of use in common cold.
- Presence of contraindications to individual components.
- Complex drops in the nose for children under 5 years, as a rule, are prohibited.
- Systemic effects of individual components on the child's body.
- Addition of non-nasal drugs - adrenaline, hormones.
- Presence of allergic reactions to individual components.
- Absence of data from clinical studies on the use of drugs in the treatment of sinusitis, sinitis, otitis.
Also worth mentioning about the side effects that can arise from the use of such complex drops.
Remember that complex drops can give a variety of adverse reactions. The instruction usually emphasizes this probability. What are the reactions:
- increased heart rate;
- increased blood pressure;
- bleeding from the nose;
- transition from the acute form of the disease to the chronic.
Thus, compound drops for the nose in some cases can accelerate recovery, in others - not only not to help, but also to worsen the state of health. The decision should be made by an expert and must agree on a prescription with the child's parents.
The approximate composition of the drops
Depending on the nature of the disease, complex droplets may consist of two components or more. The more components, the more effective the treatment, if all the components of the drops for the baby have been matched correctly and in the appropriate dosage.
How to make complex drops for children? Antiallergic agents
Needed to relieve puffiness, as well as unpleasant symptoms - itching, burning, a feeling of dryness in the nose. Especially they are effective in dealing with an allergic rhinitis.
The main types of antihistamines used in these formulations are Suprastin, Fenistil, Dimedrol, Tavegil, Zirtek. Do not recommend using "Zodak", because it contains acetic acid.
Antiseptics and antibiotics
Most often they are the basis for drops, their main task is to remove inflammation and swelling, which is important in the bacterial nature of the common cold or sinusitis. Antibiotic for bacterial rhinitis must be a part of the drops necessarily!
The main antiseptics used for the preparation of drops are Dioxydin, Furatsillin, Miramistin, Lincomycin, and others.
It should be taken into account the fact that the antiseptic "Dioxydin" is a potent substance, it is forbidden to use it for children under 18 years! When topical application of the drug should be used cautiously, as long-term use and overdose can cause atrophy of the mucous membranes of the nose.
Vasodilating drops (decoestants)
This component must contain complex drops, the composition of the drops can not be complete without such drugs, since their task is to remove the edema in the nasal cavity and to provide air access to the nasal passages.
When choosing vasoconstrictive drops, one should take into account the fact that their use in children can cause an increase in blood pressure and increased heart rate, so choose the most sparing drugs.
If the solution is prepared in a pharmacy, then such drops as "Metazone" can be added to the composition. If you prepare complex drops in the nose for children at home, the composition can be supplemented with any ready-to-be-vasoconstrictive drops: "Nazivin", "Naphthyzinum", "Oxylomethazoline".
When choosing a vasoconstrictor, the doctor needs to find out what nasal drops the parents used before the visit to the doctor, if the child does not have accustomed to them, then the doctor can also include them in the prescription drops. If the dependence on nasal drops has appeared, it is possible the doctor will pick up the others, taking into account the age of the child.
Adding hormonal drugs is required if the form of the disease is severe and the usual vasoconstrictor does not help. They provide removal of edema and inflammation, as well as allergic reactions.
Usually, hydrocortisone is added to the solution, a hormone that can kill all the symptoms of a cold in a very short time. It should be known that prolonged use of such a drug can cause adrenal dysfunction, which are responsible for the growth of the body, so it is necessary to prescribe to children with caution.
If the child is not 6 years old, then it is possible to purchase the intranasal drug "Nazonex" or "Nasobek" for it. These are ready-made drops for the treatment of a protracted cold, and they can be used from a small age.
They are added to maintain the immunity of the child during the disease. This is not a much needed component in the preparation of the formulation. The simplest immunomodulator is the well-known "Interferon", which perfectly complements complex drops for children. The drug's instruction does not prohibit this.
Included in all the formulations of such drops, is the basis.
These include various essential oils or extracts of medicinal plants. Are added at the doctor's discretion.
Their use in compound drops is necessary to eliminate the dryness of the nasal cavity, to remove inflammation, as well as to repair the damaged mucous membranes of the nose.
Important! It is not recommended to use vasoconstrictive drops for more than 5-7 days. Long-term use of such droplets causes atrophy of the nasal mucosa.
Sample recipe options
Below are only approximate recipes for compound drops, but a more accurate dosage and list of components should be determined by the treating ENT doctor.
The most famous prescription in otolaryngology. How to prepare classic complex drops? Proportions one to one, taken preparations Miramistin and Naftizin (0.05%), and these equal parts are mixed together.
As containers, you can use an empty container from under "Naphthyzin". It is permissible to use one "Miramistin", but if the swelling is severe, then these two drugs should be better combined. This recipe is used mainly for children who have adenoids diagnosed.
Here are still complex drops for children. The composition is as follows: Miramistin, Dimedrol, Naftizine (or Nafazolin), Hydrocortisone (or Dexamethasone). Such a composition of drops is prescribed by a doctor for sinusitis (especially chronic), bacterial rhinitis, with complications of rhinitis (otitis).
This recipe is prepared only in pharmacies by a pharmacist - a suspension of "Hydrocortisone", "Albucid". Very effective complex drops are obtained, the prescription of which is not a secret, but their use requires quite specific medical indications.
"Albucid" is a powerful antibacterial agent of a wide spectrum of action. It can be combined with "Nazivin", or it is possible simply with a hormone "Hydrocortisone". "Albucid" can be used for newborn children as a prophylaxis for blenorrhea. But it should be used with caution, as the given preparation causes a burning sensation in the nose.
How to choose a combination of drops?
To do this, you need to visit a specialist (otorhinolaryngologist), he will conduct the necessary examination, prescribe the delivery of tests and after studying the medical history, in case of confirmation of the diagnosis, a recipe for combined drops will be made.
Then you need to buy all the necessary components in the pharmacy or find a prescription department where you can order a doctor-appointed composition of drops.
After this, it is necessary to give an application so that the pharmacist produces complex drops. The preparation of composite drops does not take much time, they can be picked up immediately on the spot. After this, you can start treatment activities.
Specialized prescription departments of pharmacies are found, unfortunately, only in cities and in small numbers, therefore the majority of the population resorts to the independent manufacture of compound drops.
Instructions for the use of a solution of several drops
Before use, the solution must be allowed to warm to room temperature.
Drops can be used for 5-7 days (no longer), not more than 2 drops and not more than 3 times a day should be instilled.
Before using compound drops, you must:
- Clean the nose of the child. For this, the child needs to blow his nose himself, if he is old enough for this, or to clean his nose with an aspirator or a pear if the baby is very young or newborn. As a means for washing the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, saline or spray "Aquamaris", "Aquamora", "Akvalor" can act. These solutions include sea salt, which allows you to effectively clean and disinfect the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
- To drip complex drops in the nose. The composition of the drops, as already mentioned, will help determine the doctor. A compound medicine is instilled one to two drops into each nostril. If the baby is thoracic, then you can use a cotton swab. To do this, it needs to be rolled into a dense flagellum, slightly dipped in a medicine and put into the nostril of the baby and held for a while. After that, pull out the tampon. The same thing to do with the other nostril, the cotton swab for each nostril should be separate at the same time.
- Treat nose with oil. After the nasal breathing has become free and easy, it is necessary to drip one drop of vegetable oil into each nostril. This procedure is necessary to avoid overdrying the nasal mucosa during the treatment with the combined drops.
Keep complex drops are recommended in the refrigerator, because at room temperature the active substances can lose their properties (especially hormones).
If the drops are in a glass vial and when using a pipette, the drops can be stored for no more than 7 days. If the solution is in a closed vial with an orifice, the shelf life may be up to two weeks. After the expiration date, the drops should not be used, they must be disposed of immediately.
Thus, despite the advantages of using such drops for prolonged forms of the common cold and complications of colds, the doctor, as well as the child's parents, must correlate the benefits and harm of using such drops for it.