Some difficulty in the study of the Russian language creates a complex sentence with a subordinate cliche. This article will be devoted to the consideration of the questions concerning this section.
A complex sentence with a subordinate cliche
A complex sentence is a language construct, in which there is more than one grammatical basis - the subject and the predicate. Moreover, a complex sentence with a subordinate qualitative is distinguished by the presence of the main part and the dependent one. A sentence sentence denotes a feature of the subject named in the main, and answers the questions "which one".
In the speech there are often complex sentences. Examples can be given such.
The dog ran through a meadow (which?), Which was full of flowers.
Tatiana read a book from the library of Nicholas (which?), Which was already the twentieth in a row.
Why do we need complex sentences?
Some people believe that all their thoughts are easily expressed in short phrases, "without problems." They argue that a compound sentence with a subordinate qualifier should be replaced by two single-basic ones.
In some cases, they are right. Especially when it comes to "multi-storey" constructions with several subordinates, involved and adverbial participles. Such constructions are difficult to read, to understand the meaning of what was said - and even harder. But what can happen if one constantly replaces all complex sentences with a few simple ones? The examples given above, we will try to convert to simplified versions.
The dog ran through the meadow. The meadow was full of flowers.
Tatiana read a book from the library of Nicholas. She was already the twentieth in a row.
It turned out quite understandable and accessible for reading suggestions. We just needed to replace the union words with nouns or pronouns. However, in the first case there is a repetition of the word in neighboring sentences, which is undesirable. Yes, and by ear, this version is more like a material from the primer for children who read reading, and not to beautiful Russian speech.
Analysis of a complex sentence
To correctly place punctuation marks in complex grammatical constructions, the ability to find grammatical bases in their parts is required. For example, consider the proposal.
The bird sat on a branch of a tree that was hunched under the weight of snow.
Main part -the bird sat on a tree branch. Wherebird - subject, andvillages - a predicate. The sub-sentence is as follows:"TOotoroe hunched under the weight of snow ". The union word "which "Can be completely replaced by the word"tree ". Then we get a full-fledged simple sentence: "The tree was hunched under the weight of snow ", Where the grammatical basis is"the tree was hunched over ". Therefore, when parsing the subordinate clause,which is "- this is the main word here.
Will help to understand more precisely the scheme of a compound sentence. The rectangle is the main part, the circle is the subordinate. Also it is necessary to specify in the scheme the connecting allied word and to place punctuation marks.
Communication in a complex subordinate clause that has a subordinate clause
I adore the house in the village where my childhood passed.
In this construction, the union word "where "Is easily replaced by the word"in which ". You can put the question to the subordinate "I adore the house in the village (which?), Where my childhood passed. "
Often in the main part there are demonstrative words"That" ("that", "that", "those"), "such", "every", "every", "any".
I respect those people who protected their Motherland with a breast.
Where and when a comma is placed in complex sentences
- In speech constructs, where there are subordinate determinative, a comma is placed between the main part and the dependent one.
Here is the cinema, where they kissed on the last row.
- When finding the subordinate inside the main it is separated from both sides by commas.
Over the forest in which we collected mushrooms, black clouds thickened.
- Sometimes in the subordinate there is a presence of amplifying-restrictive words (conjunctions or their combinations, particles, introductory words). These areespecially, in particular, in particular, even, including, and also, namely, but (but) only, just, only, exclusively, only and others. They are referred to the subordinate, and the comma is put in such a way that it does not separate the intensifying-restrictive words from the very subordinate.
It is good to have a rest in the village, especially near which flows the river.
- If we have complex sentences with several subordinate clauses, unconnected connecting or separating unionsand (yes), or, or. then a comma is shared by all simple sentences.
The stream ran past a beautiful fairy-tale lawn, which was full of flowers, and bright butterflies fluttered over it.
In which cases do not put a comma in complex sentences
- There are complex sentences with several subordinate clauses that are homogeneous and linked together by single connecting or separating unions and (yes), or, or.
I like to look at the kids who play in the sandbox or who are keenly looking at the pictures in the book.
- It is not necessary to single out a subordinate clause with a single word.
I would take the book, but I do not know which.
- Do not single out the comma subordinate, if before the subordinate union word there is a negative particle "not “.
I had to see not what kind of work it was, but why and by whom it was written.
The position of the linking word in a complex sentence
The difficulty in parsing can appear in the case when the connecting allied word is not at the beginning of the adjective, but in the middle of it or even at the end.
The Christmas morning was cautious, all the kids were looking forward to it.
All listeners were taken by that singer, they did not regret the applause.
However, the scheme of the compound sentence, in which the union word is located not at the beginning of the subordinate clause, is constructed in such a way as if it were immediately after the comma.
Stylistic errors in complex sentences with subordinate determinative
Quite often people allow blatant bloopers in speech. And what sentence is complex will have a misinterpreted meaning?
Where there is an incorrect arrangement of the determining subordinate with respect to the word from the main part, the sign of which is indicated. If we define the definition far from it, the whole construction may take a distorted meaning.
The phrase can become altogether ridiculous, if between the determined word and the subordinate determinative put the members of the sentence, depending on other words. For example:
Tatyana loved to eat a jam with a spoon, which my grandmother prepared.
From the sentence, we can conclude that the grandmother was a master in the production of spoons. And this is not so! Grandmother cooked jam and never made objects of kitchen utensils. Therefore, the correct option would be this:
Tatyana loved to eat with a spoon jam, which my grandmother prepared.
But in those cases when there are sentence members depending on it between the subordinate and the determined word, then the construction has the right to exist.
Tatyana liked to eat jam with a spoon, painted with bright ornament, which her grandfather gave her.
Here the phrase "painted with bright ornament" is dependent on the "spoon", so the bloop did not work.
Yes, the Russian language is diverse and difficult! Complicated sentences do not occupy the last place here. However, the ability to correctly use them in speech and unerringly place punctuation marks, you can achieve a beautiful and vivid description.