Some difficulty in learning the Russian language is created by a complex sentence with a subordinate clause. This article will be devoted to the issues related to this section.
Complex sentence with a clause
A complex sentence is a language construct in which there is more than one grammatical basis - the subject and the predicate. Moreover, a complex sentence with a relative definitive clause is characterized by the presence of the main part and the dependent part. The adjective clause denotes the characteristic of a subject named in the main, and answers the questions “which, which”.
In speech, there are often complex sentences. Examples include such.
The dog ran across the meadow (which one?), Which was full of flowers.
Tatiana read a book from the library of Nicholas (which?), Which was already the twentieth in a row.
Why do we need complex sentences?
Some people believe that all their thoughts are easy to express in short phrases, "without problems." They argue that a complex sentence with a subordinate clause should be replaced with two monobasic ones.
In some cases they are right. Especially when it comes to "multi-storey" constructions with several submissions, participial and extraparticular turns. It is difficult to read such constructions, it is more difficult to understand the meaning of what has been said. But what can happen if you permanently replace all complex sentences with a few simple ones? The examples given above, we will try to convert to simplified versions.
The dog ran across the meadow. Meadow was full of flowers.
Tatiana read a book from the library of Nicholas. She was already the twentieth in a row.
It turned out quite clear and readable sentences. We just needed to replace allied words with nouns or pronouns. However, in the first case there is a repetition of the word in the adjacent sentences, which is undesirable. Yes, and at the hearing, this option is more like material from the primer for reading children reading, and not to the beautiful Russian language.
Analysis of complex sentences
To correctly place punctuation marks in complex grammatical constructions, the ability to find grammatical bases in their parts is required. For example, we will sort the sentence.
The bird sat on a branch of a tree, which was hunched under the weight of snow.
Main part -a bird sat on a tree branch. Wherebird - subject, andsat down - predicate. The submissive sentence here is this:"TOthat which was hunched under the weight of snow ”. Union word "which "Can be replaced by the word"tree ". Then we get a full-fledged simple sentence: "The tree was hunched under the weight of snow ", Where the grammatical basis -"the tree was hunched up ". Therefore, when parsing a subordinate clause is indicated by the subject “which "- this is the word that is most important here.
It will help to understand more precisely the scheme of a complex sentence. The rectangle denotes the main part, the circle - the subordinate. You should also indicate in the scheme a binding union word and place punctuation marks.
Relationship in a complex sentence with a clause
I love the house in the village where my childhood passed.
In this design, the union word "where "Is easily replaced by the word"wherein ". You can put the question to the subordinate "I love the house in the village (what?), Where my childhood passed. ”
Often in the main part there are indicative words."That" ("that", "that", "those"), "such", "each", "everyone", "any".
I respect those people who defended their Fatherland with their breasts.
Where and when is a comma put in complex sentences
- In speech constructions where there are definitive appendages, a comma is placed between the principal part and the dependent part.
Here is the cinema where they kissed on the last row.
- When finding a subordinate inside the main one, it is distinguished from both sides by commas.
Over the forest in which we gathered mushrooms, black clouds gathered.
- Sometimes in the subordinate, the presence of reinforcing-restrictive words (unions or their combinations, particles, introductory words) is detected. These areespecially, in particular, in particular, even, including, and also, namely, and (but) only, just, only, exclusively, only and others. They are attributed to the subordinate, and the comma is set in such a way as not to separate the reinforcing-restrictive words from the subordinate itself.
To have a good rest in the village, especially near the river.
- If we have complex sentences with several subordinate, unrelated connecting or separation unionsand (yes), or, or. the comma is separated by all simple sentences.
The stream ran past a beautiful fabulous lawn, which was full of flowers, over which bright butterflies fluttered.
In what cases do not put a comma in complex sentences
- There are complex sentences with several subordinate clauses that are homogeneous and interconnected by single connecting or separating unions and (yes), or, or.
I like to look at kids who play in the sandbox or who are enthusiastically considering the pictures in the book.
- It is not necessary to single out a single-word subordinate comma.
I would take the book, but I do not know which one.
- There is no comma clause if there is a negative particle in front of the subordinate allynot “.
I had to see not what kind of work it was, but why and by whom it was written.
The position of the link word in the complex sentence
Difficulty in parsing may appear in the case when the connecting union word is not at the beginning of the subordinate, but in the middle of it or even at the end.
Christmas morning was coming carefully, all the kids were looking forward to it.
All the listeners were conquered by that singer, who did not spare applause for which.
However, the schema of a complex sentence, in which the connecting union word is not at the beginning of the subordinate, is constructed in such a way as if it stands immediately after the comma.
Stylistic errors in complex sentences with subordinate clauses
Quite often, people allow frank blunders in speech. And what sentence will a complex subject have a distorted meaning?
That where there is an incorrect location of the determinative subordinate relative to the word from the main part, the sign of which is indicated. If you put the definition away from it, the whole structure can take on a distorted meaning.
A phrase can become altogether ridiculous if the sentence between the words being defined and the subordinate definitive is dependent on other words. For example:
Tatyana loved to eat jam with the spoon that her grandmother had cooked.
From the proposal it can be concluded that the grandmother was a master of spoons. And this is not the case at all! Grandmother made jam and never made kitchen utensils. Therefore, the correct option would be:
Tatyana loved to eat a spoonful of jam that my grandmother prepared.
But in those cases when between the subordinate and the defined word are the members of the sentence that depend on it, the construction has the right to exist.
Tatiana loved to eat jam with a spoon, painted with a bright ornament, which her grandfather gave her.
Here, the phrase "painted with bright ornament" is dependent on the "spoon", so the mistake did not work out.
Yes, the Russian language is diverse and difficult! Complex sentences take not the last place here. However, the ability to correctly use them in speech and accurately place punctuation marks, you can achieve a beautiful and vivid description.