One of the important stages in the production of blanks and processing of rolled steel is the cutting of metal. The alloy is a material that has a high hardness, so in order to cut it, you need special equipment.
The essence of metal cutting
The technology of cutting consists in cutting off excess parts of metal with the help of special tools. Applicable in cases where processing does not require high accuracy. Most often, the cutting of sheet metal is necessary for the separation of scale, inaccuracies that have arisen during production. Also, the technology is used to remove burrs, dividing into parts of the starting material. Felling is a locksmith operation, which is performed both manually and on special devices. In the first case chisels, hammers, kreuzmeysel. It should be noted that metal felling is quite a difficult process, so its automation greatly simplifies the cutting.
What tools are used for manual cutting
The cutting of the metal is done using a chisel. They are made of tool steel (V7, V8). The edge of such a tool is a blade of great hardness (not less than 53 HRC). Depending on the hardness of the metal being treated, the chisel can be sharpened at an angle of 60 ° (for steel), 70 ° (bronze, cast iron), 35-45 ° (for non-ferrous metals). A less sharp angle in the processing of hard materials is necessary to ensure that the end of the chisel retains its durability and does not break. The tool head, as a rule, has a lesser hardness (so that it does not collapse when the hammer strikes). It gradually wears out, deforms, and therefore needs a frame. In no case is it allowed to work with damaged chisels, as the hammer can slip and lead to a traumatized worker.
Tools for cutting metal include a device such as a kreuzmeysel. This so-called groove chisel. It is intended for making special grooves, grooves, other openings. Its working surface has a narrower blade width. Figured grooves are made with a similar device - a groove. Hammers are used as a percussion instrument. They are both with a round side, and with a square, the weight is 400-800 grams. It is the hammer that beats the chisel (kreutzmeyselu). To ensure that its working surface is securely fixed and does not slip off the handle, special metal or wooden wedges are often used, which are driven into it. There are such methods of striking: wrist, elbow, and shoulder. Hand brush is used to separate fine chips, to remove small irregularities. Cutting grooves, grooves requires an elbow strike. Full swing (shoulder blow) has maximum strength. It is necessary when processing thick metal.
Depending on the location of the tool and the workpiece, vertical and horizontal wheelhouse are distinguished. The first is performed on the slab, anvil. The workpiece is laid horizontally on the work surface, and the tool is held vertically. After applying the impact, the blade is transferred so that its part (about half) was in the newly formed well. This is necessary in order for the metal cutting to be continuous. If the thickness of the sheet is more than 2 mm, it is necessary to apply markings on both sides. First, the part is processed on one side, then inverted. At a small thickness of the material, it is recommended to put a sheet of soft steel under the workpiece. This will not allow the chisel to blunt about the anvil. Horizontal felling (bending) of metal occurs in the vice. At the same time, the working tool is mounted at a very small angle to the machined surface (almost horizontally).
Felling on an industrial scale
At the enterprises the cutting of metal is carried out by the following methods: cutting with the help of band saw, laser, gas, abrasive cutting (with a mixture of water and abrasive material). Laser cutting of metal is based on the use of laser heat, due to which the cut line warms up to the melting point. At the same time, the main material does not heat up and retains its properties. This type of processing is highly effective, the workpiece after cutting does not require any additional processing. However, this method is distinguished by the high cost of the equipment. Also, there are requirements for the thickness of the material - it should not exceed 20 mm. Hydroabrasive cutting allows to exclude a strong thermal impact on the material, the edges do not melt, and the accuracy and quality of the cut are high. Gas treatment is based on the direction of the jet of oxygen, which burns the metal. A variation of this method is the flux-oxygen technology. Widely used method of cutting metal and using a guillotine.
Metal cutting with guillotine
A very popular way of cutting alloys is using the guillotine. They are manual, electromechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic. When choosing a guillotine, consider the serial production, the thickness of the metal, which must be cut. For thin sheets (about 1 mm) manual equipment is well suited. The hydraulic drive has a high power, all operations are performed at high speed. Such machines do not have great vibration, their maintenance is not complicated, and the cutting accuracy is high. With the help of an electromechanical drive, the metal is cut to a thickness of up to 8 mm. These devices are powerful, safe, have many additional features.
How is the cutting of metal on the guillotine
The machine is equipped with two knives, one of which is stationary, and the second can make circular motions. The metal is fed to the cutting site by the roller table. The knife is lowered into the marked place, and the workpiece is cut to the necessary elements. The knife is controlled through a special button. The cutting tool creates a lot of pressure, so there are no burrs, the edges remain flat. Such metal cutting has many advantages. First, the cost of the process is low, there are practically no residues and waste. Secondly, the quality of the products, which is obtained, is quite high. They can immediately be subjected to further processing - painting, drilling, etc. However, complex configurations of parts on such equipment can not be made. All modern models of guillotines are equipped with a large amount of electronics. This makes it possible to cut metal blanks almost completely automatically.