One of the important stages in the production of billets and the processing of rolled steel is the cutting of metal. An alloy is a material that has high hardness, therefore, in order to cut it, you need special equipment.
The essence of the cutting metal
The cutting technology consists of cutting off excess metal parts with the help of special tools. It is used in cases when the treatment does not require high accuracy. Most often, cutting of sheet metal is necessary for the separation of scale, inaccuracies that arose during production. The technology is also used to remove burrs, dividing into parts of the source material. The cabin is a metalwork operation, which is performed both manually and on special tools. In the first case, chisels, hammers, kretsmeysel. It should be noted that the metal cutting of the metal is a rather difficult process, so its automation greatly simplifies cutting.
What tools are used for manual cutting
Cutting metal is made using chisels. They are made of tool steel (V7, V8). The edge of this tool is a blade of great hardness (not less than 53 HRC). Depending on the hardness of the metal being worked, the chisel may be pointed at an angle of 60 ° (for steel), 70 ° (bronze, cast iron), 35-45 ° (for non-ferrous metals). A less acute angle when processing hard materials is necessary so that the tip of the chisel retains its durability and does not break. The tool head, as a rule, has a lower hardness (so as not to collapse when hitting the hammer). It gradually wears out, deforms, and therefore needs a mandrel. In no case is it allowed to work with damaged chisels, since the hammer may slip and cause injury to the worker.
Tools for cutting the metal and include such a device, as kreitsmeysel. This is the so-called chisel. Designed for making special grooves, grooves and other holes. Its working surface has a narrower blade width. Figured grooves make a similar device - a groove. Hammers are used as percussion instruments. They are both with round side and square, weight is 400-800 grams. It is the hammer that strikes the chisel (kreuzmeisel). To ensure that its working surface is securely fixed and does not slide off the handle, special metal or wooden wedges are often used, which are driven into it. There are such methods of striking: wrist, elbow, shoulder. Hand stroke is used to separate fine chips, removing small irregularities. Cutting grooves, grooves requires elbow impact. Full swing (humeral blow) has maximum strength. It is necessary when processing thick metal.
Options for cutting material
Depending on the location of the tool and parts, allocate vertical and horizontal cutting. The first is performed on the stove, the anvil. The part is laid on the work surface horizontally, and the tool is held vertically. After striking the blade, it is transferred so that a part of it (about half) is in the newly formed hole. This is necessary so that the cutting of the metal is continuous. If the sheet thickness is more than 2 mm, it is necessary to apply the markings on both sides. First, the item is processed on one side, then turned over. With a small thickness of the material it is recommended to put a sheet of mild steel under the workpiece. This will prevent the chisel from blunting the anvil. Horizontal chopping (bending) of metal occurs in a vice. At the same time, the working tool is mounted at a very small angle to the surface to be machined (almost horizontally).
The enterprises are cutting metal in the following ways: cutting with a band saw, laser, gas, abrasive cutting (with a mixture of water and abrasive material). Laser cutting of metal is based on the use of laser heat, due to which the cutting line is heated to the melting point. At the same time, the main material does not heat up and retains its properties. This type of processing is highly efficient, the workpiece after the cutting does not require any additional processing. However, this method has a high cost of equipment. There are also requirements for the thickness of the material - it should not exceed 20 mm. Hydroabrasive cutting allows to exclude a strong thermal effect on the material, the edges do not melt, and the accuracy and quality of the cut have high rates. Gas processing is based on the direction of the detail of the stream of oxygen, which burns through the metal. A variation of this method is flux-oxygen technology. The method of cutting metal and using a guillotine is widely used.
A very popular method of cutting alloys is to use a guillotine. They are manual, electromechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic. When choosing a guillotine take into account the serial production, the thickness of the metal that must be cut. For thin sheets (about 1 mm), manual equipment is well suited. The hydraulic drive has great power, all operations are performed at high speed. Such machines do not have a large vibration, their maintenance is not difficult, and the cutting accuracy is high. With the help of an electromechanical drive, cutting of metal with a thickness of up to 8 mm is performed. These devices are powerful, safe, have many additional features.
How does the cutting of metal on the guillotine
The machine is equipped with two knives, one of which is fixed, and the second can perform circular movements. The metal is fed with a roller conveyor to a cutting place. The knife is lowered into the marked place, and the workpiece is cut to the necessary elements. Knife control is done through a special button. The cutting tool creates a lot of pressure, so there are no burrs, the edges remain smooth. This kind of cutting has many advantages. First, the cost of the process is low, there are practically no residues and wastes. Secondly, the quality of the products, which is obtained, is quite high. They can be immediately subjected to further processing - painting, drilling, etc. However, complex configurations of parts on such equipment cannot be made. All modern models of guillotines are equipped with a large number of electronics. This allows the cutting of metal blanks in almost fully automatic mode.