Everyone ever thought about how big and unknown the world around us. Being part of an immeasurably huge universe, we often ask ourselves questions with curiosity: "How big is the universe?", "What does it consist of?", "Is there an intelligent life apart from us?", "How many galaxies in the universe?" And many others.
This article seeks to answer some of them and broaden the general knowledge and understanding of the universe and its constituent parts and systems.
The universe includes everything that exists. From cosmic dust to giant stars; from the smallest hydrogen atoms to subjective ideas and abstract concepts. Everything that is and functions in space is part of the universe.
It is studied by various sciences. Physics, astronomy and cosmology are pioneers in the study of the universe in objective reality. They are trying to give answers to the question of what the cosmos consists of or how many galaxies exist in the universe. Philosophy from the first days of studying the universe in the subjective reality. The mother of all sciences is concerned not with how many galaxies in the universe, but how she and her perception influence our life and development.
Given the incredible size of the universe and the mass of bodies and substances in it, it is not surprising that we have accumulated a huge amount of knowledge; it is also not surprising that many more questions remain unanswered. Only a small part of the universe at a certain moment of time lends itself to physical study, the rest can only be guessed. The past and future of the universe are only assumptions and predictions, and its present is open to us only by a tiny fraction.
What exactly do we know about it?
We are absolutely sure that the universe is huge, and with great probability we can say that it is immeasurable. To measure the distances between space objects, a completely "universal" unit is used - a light year. This is the distance that a ray of light can overcome in a year.
The substance that makes up the universe surrounds our planet at least 93 billion light-years away. For comparison, our galaxy occupies a place that can be overcome in 100,000 light years.
Scientists divide the cosmic matter into a cluster of atoms - an understandable and studied physical matter, which is also called baryonic matter. However, a large part of the universe is occupied by unexplored dark energy, the properties of which are unknown to scientists. A considerable part of the visible space of the Universe is also occupied by a dark or hidden mass, which scientists call an invisible substance.
The accumulation of baryonic matter forms stars, planets and other cosmic bodies, which in turn form galaxies. The latter are in motion and move away from each other. Answer the question of how many galaxies in the universe, with accuracy is impossible.
What can we only assume?
The past of the universe and the process of its formation are precisely unknown. Scientists suggest that the age of the universe is almost 14 billion years, and it was formed after the expansion of concentrated hot matter, which in cosmology is called the Big Bang Theory.
All that is based on the main theoretical models of the evolution of the universe, scientists receive by observing the part visible to us. How true any of the existing models, it is impossible to prove. Most scientists agree with the theory of expansion of the universe - after the "big bang" the cosmic substance continues its movement from its center.
It is worth remembering that all these models are theoretical, and it is impossible to test them in practice for a variety of reasons. Therefore, it is worthwhile to concentrate on available and proven knowledge that answers questions about how many stars in the galaxy, and how many galaxies in the universe. A photo taken with the help of modern technologies, called Hubble (from Hubble Ultra Deep Field), allows you to see the location of many galaxies in a small visible part of the sky.
The galaxy is a cluster of stars, gas, dust and hidden mass. The gravitational interaction of the baryonic matter and the dark cosmic mass unites the galaxy into a tightly bound group of cosmic bodies. Galaxies move with a certain speed, which confirms the theory of expansion of the universe, but the gravitational center of the galaxy does not allow the movement of the universe to influence its formation. All bodies in the galaxy revolve around the gravitational center.
Galaxies can be of various types, sizes and consist of many systems. There is no single answer to the question of how many galaxies in the universe, since the existence of two identical galaxies is unlikely. By type they are divided into:
- with a jumper;
The size of the galaxy is classified as dwarfish, medium, large and giant. An unequivocal answer to the question of how many systems in the galaxy does not exist, since the number of systems and star clusters depends on a variety of different factors, such as the gravitational field of stars, the size of the galaxy, and many others.
The scale of galaxies
Each galaxy consists of star systems, clusters and interstellar clouds. Several neighboring galaxies can be attracted to each other and form a local group. It can have from three to 30 galaxies of various types and sizes.
Clusters of local groups, in turn, form huge star clouds, which are called superclusters of galaxies. The gravitational interdependence of galaxies with respect to neighbors from a local group, as well as from a supercluster, is based on the interaction of atoms of baryonic matter with hidden matter.
Our native galaxy - the Milky Way - is a spiral in the form of a disk with a jumper. The core of the galaxy is made up of old stars - red giants. The Milky Way group shares the local group with two neighboring galaxies: the Andromeda nebula and the Triangle galaxy. The supercluster to which they belong is called the Supercluster of the Virgin.
In the local group of the Milky Way, in addition to three large galaxies, there are about 40 dwarf galaxies that are attracted by the stronger gravitational fields of their large neighbors. Black holes and spaces of dark matter in Virgo's supercluster can be as many as galaxies. In the Milky Way absolutely exact number of stars is unknown, but according to the most approximate estimates, they are 200 billion. The diameter of the milky way is one hundred thousand light years, and the average thickness of the disk is a thousand light years.
The youngest stars and their clusters are closer to the surface of the disk, while the center of the nucleus of the galaxy, according to scientists, is a huge black hole, around which a very high concentration of stars. The main star of our system - the Sun - is located closer to the surface of the disk.
The age of the solar system is 4.5 billion years, and it is located in the form of a disk. The heaviest element of the system is its center - the Sun, it has almost the entire mass, which causes a strong gravitational attraction. The eight planets revolving around it make up only 0.14% of the total mass of the system. The earth belongs to the four small planets of the terrestrial group, along with Mars, Venus and Mercury. The remaining planets are called gas giants, because they are made up of gases.