Everyone ever wondered how big and unknown the world around us. Being part of the immeasurably vast Universe, we often ask ourselves with curiosity: “How big is the Universe?”, “What is it made of?”, “Is there any intelligent life besides us?”, “How many galaxies are in the Universe?” And many others.
This article seeks to answer some of them and expand the general knowledge and understanding of the Universe and its component parts and systems.
The universe includes everything that exists. From cosmic dust to giant stars; from the smallest hydrogen atoms to subjective ideas and abstract concepts. Everything that is and functions in space is part of the universe.
Her study of various sciences. Physics, astronomy and cosmology - pioneers in studying the universe in objective reality. They are the ones who are trying to give answers to the question of what makes up the cosmos or how many galaxies exist in the Universe. From its first days, philosophy studies the Universe in subjective reality. The mother of all sciences cares not about how many galaxies are in the universe, but how it and its perception affect our life and development.
Given the incredible size of the universe and the mass of bodies and substances in it, it is not surprising that we have accumulated a huge amount of knowledge; it is also not surprising that a much larger number of questions remain unanswered. Only a small part of the universe at a certain point in time is amenable to physical study, we can only guess about the rest. The past and the future of the universe are only assumptions and predictions, and its present is open to us only for a tiny fraction.
What do we know for sure about her?
We are absolutely sure that the Universe is huge, and with high probability we can say that it is immeasurable. To measure the distances between space objects, a completely “universal” unit is used - the light year. This is the distance that a ray of light can cover in a year.
The substance of which the Universe is composed surrounds our planet at least at a distance of 93 billion light years. For comparison, our galaxy occupies a place that can be overcome in 100 thousand light years.
Scientists divide cosmic matter into clusters of atoms — understandable and studied physical matter, which is also called baryonic matter. However, most of the universe is occupied by unexplored dark energy, whose properties are unknown to scientists. Also, a large part of the visible space of the Universe is occupied by a dark or hidden mass, which scientists call invisible substance.
The accumulation of baryonic matter forms stars, planets and other cosmic bodies, which, in turn, form galaxies. The latter are in motion and move away from each other. Answer the question of how many galaxies in the universe, with an accuracy impossible.
What can we only assume?
The past of the Universe and the process of its formation are not precisely known. Scientists assume that the age of the Universe is almost 14 billion years, and it was formed after the expansion of a concentrated hot substance, which in cosmology is called the Big Bang Theory.
All that the main theoretical models of the evolution of the Universe are based on, scientists obtain by observing its visible part. How true any of the current models, it is impossible to prove. Most scientists agree with the theory of the expansion of the Universe - after the “big bang”, cosmic matter continues its movement from its center.
It is worth remembering that all these models are theoretical, and it is impossible to test them in practice for many reasons. Therefore it is worthwhile to concentrate on the available and proven knowledge that answers questions about how many stars are in the galaxy, and how many galaxies are in the Universe. A photo taken with the help of modern technology, called Hubble (from Hubble Ultra Deep Field), allows you to see the location of many galaxies on a small visible part of the sky.
A galaxy is a cluster of stars, gas, dust and latent mass. The gravitational interaction of baryonic matter and dark cosmic mass unites the galaxy into a tightly bound group of cosmic bodies. Galaxies move with a certain speed, which confirms the theory of the expansion of the Universe, but the gravitational center of the galaxy does not allow the movement of the Universe to influence its formation. All bodies in the galaxy rotate around the gravitational center.
Galaxies can be of various types, sizes and consist of many systems. There is no single answer to the question of how many galaxies are in the Universe, since the existence of two identical galaxies is unlikely. By type, they are divided into:
- with jumper;
By size, galaxies are classified as dwarf, medium, large and giant. An unequivocal answer to the question of how many systems in the galaxy does not exist, since the number of systems and star clusters depends on many different factors, such as the gravitational field of stars, the size of the galaxy, and many others.
Each galaxy consists of star systems, clusters and interstellar clouds. Several neighboring galaxies can attract each other and form a local group. It can be from three to 30 galaxies of various types and sizes.
Clusters of local groups, in turn, form huge stellar clouds, which are called superclusters of galaxies. The gravitational interdependence of galaxies with respect to neighbors from a local group, as well as from a supercluster, is based on the interaction of atoms of baryonic matter with hidden matter.
Our native galaxy - the Milky Way - is a spiral in the form of a disk with a jumper. The core of the galaxy is made up of old stars - red giants. The local group of the Milky Way shares with two neighboring galaxies: the Andromeda nebula and the galaxy of the Triangle. The supercluster to which they belong is called the Virgo Supercluster.
In the local group of the Milky Way, in addition to three large galaxies, there are about 40 satellite dwarf galaxies, which are attracted by the stronger gravitational fields of their large neighbors. Black holes and dark matter spaces in the Virgo supercluster can be as many as galaxies. In the Milky Way, the exact number of stars is unknown, but according to the most approximate estimates, they are 200 billion. The diameter of the Milky Way is one hundred thousand light years, and the average disk thickness is one thousand light years.
The youngest stars and their clusters are closer to the disk surface, while the center of the galactic nucleus, according to scientists, is a huge black hole, around which there is a very high concentration of stars. The main star of our system - the Sun - is located closer to the surface of the disk.
The age of the solar system is 4.5 billion years, and it is located in the form of a disk. The heaviest element of the system is its center - the Sun, it accounts for almost the entire mass, which causes a strong gravitational pull. Eight planets revolving around it, make up only 0.14% of the total mass of the system. Earth belongs to the four small planets of the terrestrial group, along with Mars, Venus and Mercury. The rest of the planets are called gas giants, because they consist mostly of gases.