Development to date of the most promising approach in management (situational) is the result of using scientific achievements to solve real practical problems. The advantage of such an analysis is the "immersion" in the situation for making the right informed decision. A deeper understanding of the problem makes it possible to anticipate crises and react flexibly to changes. What is a situation analysis of an organization?
This approach is more efficient from an economic point of view than other areas of management. Its essence is that it is more expedient for the manager to use those tools that are more necessary in specific circumstances. The form, method, style of leadership should be diverse, flexible and change as necessary. They are secondary, and the situation (the circumstances that affect the company at the moment) is put on the first place.
Applying the situation analysis of the enterprise, managers are able to quickly understand what method is effective, what means to use to achieve corporate goals.
The importance of situational analysis
Situational analysis is a tool for approaching management through "immersion" in a problematic environment. It can be called a cutoff of the situation in which the organization is located in a given period. What gives management its use?
- A picture of the real situation at the firm.
- List of problems threatening its development.
- Forecast and perspective.
- Information for the development of measures of economic protection.
The tasks of the situational analysis include complex studies of the organization, evaluation of the correctness of the decision taken.
Where is the situation analysis used?
Technologies related to the preparation, adoption and implementation of management decisions, based on the analysis of problem areas, are called situational analysis. The management process is continuous, closed and consists of functions, each of which involves the application of this approach:
- situational analysis of the current situation;
- adoption of management decisions;
- development and implementation of plans;
- organization of well-coordinated work of units;
- supplies of resources;
- motivating and stimulating staff;
- control function and exit from problem areas.
Analysis of learning situations
Situational analysis is an effective method of training, it makes it easier to master management, business planning, psychology, entrepreneurship and other sciences. It has become an integral part of business games. Methods of situational analysis can be used in many activities, and very successfully. Trained by this system apply the theory studied in practice, learn to make the right decisions for the future or when implementing tactical programs.
The tasks of the situation analysis
The main problem solved by the analysis of practical situations is competent and systematic work with information. Other tasks of this research area include:
- Collection and processing of information on the diagnosis of the situation.
- The definition of "information" and "white spots".
- Establishment of factors that develop the situation.
- Building a strategy to solve the problem.
- Risk assessment.
- Formulation of criteria and framework.
- Establishing a common language with the participants in the discussion.
Methods of situational analysis
Situational analysis involves the use of Bank standard situations, in which you can find analog of specific life problems of the enterprise. When a task is close to the existing standard, the solution requires a lot of energy. If the situation is unique, for its analysis it is necessary to find the factors that influenced the course of events. For their evaluation using one of the methods, for example brainstorming. It is held in two stages:
- Generation of ideas. How will the situation develop? How to affect it?
- Ideas are discussed. The decision is made collectively.
Phased situational analysis of the enterprise
Select appropriate analysis methods for a particular case.
Assess the situation, identify significant factors and the results of their changes.
Make a forecast on the implementation of various alternatives.
Choose the most effective alternative (solution).
The advantage of situational analysis is that it is based on real problems that arise in the life of the organization. Its technology as a final product not only provides the management decision, but also data to adjust the strategy.
The essence of the system approach in management is the application of a theory that regards an enterprise as a complex of elements. With a combination of structure, personnel, resources, technology and objectives, a management system-organization is formed. The system approach is based on such provisions:
- all actions at the enterprise are interrelated;
- management decisions affect every element of the system;
- solving the problem of one element should not create a malfunction in another area.
The system approach became the basis for the development of management tasks in different areas. It became the basis for the emergence of the theory of unpredictable cases: the new situations in which the head gets into are unique and at the same time are related to the experience already gained.
The essence of the system-situational approach and analysis
System and situational approach in combination allow to use in practice a complex analysis of situations. Organization - a system of elements associated with the external environment. A large number of factors inside and outside the enterprise compel management to apply a variety of management methods. System-situational analysis allows you to select the most highly adapted to the given conditions management methods. Let's consider its features on the example of combined SWOT-analysis.
The meaning of the SWOT-analysis is to conduct self-monitoring of the firm's activities. Self-analysis consists of four areas:
- strengths and weaknesses of the organization (factors of the internal environment);
- opportunities and threats (external environment).
The purpose of the situational analysis – to obtain a holistic picture of the state of the company at the time of the study. The result should be a revision of the situation of the organization, a departure from the existing to new development programs. The subject of the situational analysis in this case becomes the environment: consumers, competitors, intermediaries and other external factors. The subject of system analysis, organization and internal factors.
Situational analysis, an example of which can be considered on the basis of the SWOT table, allows to form a detailed picture of the strengths and weaknesses of any enterprise.