The development of the most promising approach in management (situational) today is the result of the use of scientific achievements to solve real practical problems. The advantage of this analysis is the “immersion” in the situation to make the right informed decision. A deeper understanding of the problem makes it possible to anticipate crises and respond flexibly to change. What is a situational analysis of an organization?
This approach is more efficient from an economic point of view than other areas of management. Its essence is that it is more expedient for a manager to use those tools that are more necessary in specific circumstances. The form, method, style of leadership should be varied, flexible and changed as needed. They are secondary, and the situation (the circumstances affecting the company at the moment) is put in the first place.
Using a situational analysis of the enterprise, managers are able to quickly figure out which method is effective, what tools to use to achieve corporate goals.
The value of situational analysis
Situational analysis is a tool for approaching management through “immersion” into the problem environment. It can be called a slice of the situation in which the organization is located in this period. What gives management its use?
- The picture of the real situation in the company.
- The list of problems threatening its development.
- Forecast and perspective.
- Information to develop economic protection measures.
The tasks of the situational analysis include complex studies of the organization, assessment of the correctness of the decision.
Where does situation analysis apply?
Technologies associated with the preparation, adoption and implementation of management decisions based on the analysis of problem areas are called situational analysis. The management process is continuous, closed and consists of functions, each of which involves the use of this approach:
- situational analysis of the current situation;
- management decision making;
- development and implementation of plans;
- organization of coordinated work units;
- supply of resources;
- motivation and incentives;
- control function and exit from problem areas.
Analysis of situations in training
Situational analysis is an effective method of learning that makes it easier to master management, business planning, psychology, entrepreneurship and other sciences. It has become an integral part of business games. Methods of situational analysis can be used in many activities, and very successfully. Students of this system apply the theory studied in practice, learn to make the right decisions for the future or in the implementation of tactical programs.
Tasks of situational analysis
The main problem that solves the analysis of practical situations - competent and systematic work with information. Other tasks in this area of research include:
- Collection and processing of information on the diagnosis of the situation.
- The definition of "information" and "white spots".
- The establishment of factors that develop the situation.
- Build a strategy to solve the problem.
- Risk assessment.
- The wording of the criteria and framework.
- Establishing a common language with discussion participants.
Methods of situational analysis
Situational analysis involves the use of Bank standard situations, in which you can find analog of specific life problems of the enterprise. When a task is close to the existing standard, the solution requires a lot of energy. If the situation is unique, for its analysis it is necessary to find the factors that influenced the course of events. For their evaluation using one of the methods, for example brainstorming. It is held in two stages:
- Generation of ideas. How will the situation evolve? How to affect it?
- Ideas are discussed. The decision is made collectively.
Phased enterprise situation analysis
Select for a particular case the appropriate methods of analysis.
Assess the situation, determine the significant factors and the results of their changes.
Make a forecast for the implementation of various alternatives.
Choose the most effective alternative (solution).
The advantage of situational analysis is that it is based on real problems that appear in the life of the organization. As a final product, its technologies provide not only a management decision, but also data for strategy adjustment.
The essence of the systems approach in management is the application of the theory that considers an enterprise as a complex of elements. With a combination of structure, personnel, resources, technology and objectives, a management system is formed - the organization. The systems approach is based on the following provisions:
- all activities in the enterprise are interrelated;
- management decisions affect every element of the system;
- solving the problem of one element should not cause problems in another area.
A systematic approach has become the basis for the development of management tasks in different directions. It became the basis for the emergence of the theory of unpredictable cases: new situations in which the head falls are unique and at the same time connected with the experience already gained.
The essence of the system-situational approach and analysis
A systematic and situational approach in combination allows us to use in practice a comprehensive analysis of situations. An organization is a system of elements related to the external environment. A large number of factors inside and outside the enterprise forces management to apply a variety of management techniques. The system-situational analysis allows choosing the methods of management which are most adapted to the given conditions. Consider its features on the example of the combined SWOT-analysis.
The meaning of the SWOT-analysis is to conduct self-control of the company. Self-analysis consists of four directions:
- strengths and weaknesses of the organization (factors of the internal environment);
- opportunities and threats (external environment).
The purpose of the situational analysis – to obtain a holistic picture of the state of the company at the time of the study. The result should be a revision of the situation of the organization, a departure from the existing to new development programs. The subject of the situational analysis in this case becomes the environment: consumers, competitors, intermediaries and other external factors. The subject of system analysis, organization and internal factors.
Situational analysis, an example of which can be considered on the basis of the SWOT table, allows you to form a detailed view of the strengths and weaknesses of any enterprise.