Every year in world medicine recorded fatal cases of intestinal flu. More often, people of retirement age are suffering from infection, with weakened immunity and young children. The peak number of cases falls in the autumn-winter period. Rotavirus intestinal infection is dangerous serious consequences associated with the violation of the heart and kidneys.
Pathogens and viruses become the causative agents of gastroenteritis. The disease has a pronounced nature, often combined with cold symptoms. How insidious is the pathology, how can it be identified and eliminated? The article will highlight all relevant issues.
Characteristic of the disease
This is a viral disease manifested by acute respiratory symptoms. Microscopic particles of the genus Reoviridae are wheel-shaped and very resistant to external factors. For a person, 9 types of strains pose a threat. Every year, pathogenic microparticles undergo mutations and provoke severe complications. Often in the fight against the pathogen have to use the latest generation of antibiotics.
According to statistics, almost every child under 5 years old has had a disease. However, there is no guarantee that rotovirus intestinal infection will not appear again. Symptoms and treatment are similar to cases of intoxication of the body, so therapy cannot be prescribed independently. It is necessary to carry out a number of measures to strengthen the protective forces and to observe hygiene in order to reduce the risk of infection.
Mostly the pathogen enters the body through the mouth, through dirty hands. There are suggestions that the pathological infection is transmitted by drip (released into the environment when sneezing, coughing), but this fact remains in question. Also, strains of viruses can be stored on food, in water, household items. Everything that the infected person touched becomes dangerous for the healthy.
Pathogens are highly adaptable: they survive in the cold, they are not destroyed by chloride substances. The rotavirus intestinal infection appears 3-5 days after infection. Treatment in children and adults must begin with the first manifestations. Once in the small intestine, the pathogen attacks the healthy cells, resulting in impaired digestive activity.
As a result, severe diarrhea occurs, vomiting begins, nutrient loss and dehydration occur. The pathogen will progress until it destroys all epithelial cells. This period lasts for 7 days and is characterized by poisoning. Sometimes bacterial flora is attached to the virus, then antibacterial drugs are prescribed.
Rotoviral intestinal infection in children: features of the course
Pediatric practice shows that for the first time a child becomes infected with pathology in infancy - from 6 to 12 months. This period is due to a weak immune defense when maternal antibodies are reduced. The course of gastroenteritis (especially in the first two days) is very acute. There is severe vomiting (not to be confused with regurgitation), frequent diarrhea (more than 10 times a day), there is a high temperature.
Often causes spasms in the abdomen, pain, rumbling rotavirus intestinal infection. Treatment for children of such an early age should begin immediately. Sometimes requires hospitalization and IV fluids. When severe, increases the risk of dehydration. Which may occur due to the following signs that should alert parents:
- dryness and loss elastic the skin
- no urination for more than six hours;
- "Rolled" eyeballs;
- significant weight loss.
With rational and timely treatment, catarrhal symptoms disappear on the fifth day. Re-infection occurs when the child enters the society (kindergarten, school). Children who have had this virus suffer the disease more easily.
As occurs in adults rotavirus intestinal infection?
Symptoms are directly dependent on the age and condition of the patient. In some cases, the pathology is characterized by a slight increase in temperature (up to 37.5 o C), nausea, indigestion, pain in the abdomen. With a mild course of the process of complete recovery begins on the fifth day. Very rarely entails dysbacteriosis and enterocolitis. Rotoviral intestinal infection is a threat during pregnancy, as diarrhea, repeated vomiting, flatulence and cramps can cause uterine contractions.
Clinical manifestations are identical to food poisoning. Therefore, the visual inspection and history to diagnose wrong. A reliable way to recognize the causative agent is immunochromatography (checking feces), blood analysis for the level of leukocytes and ESR, as well as urine. Rotavirus enteric infection differs from intoxication with the following aspects:
- seasonality of distribution (cold period),
- rhinitis, sore throat, cough,
- inflammation of the eye.
Principles of therapy
Important points in the treatment of the disease are: replenishment of the lost fluid, getting rid of pronounced manifestations (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sore throat, runny nose). Antiviral drugs in this case are useless. Assign absorbers, such as: "Smekta", "Enterosgel", "Regidron", "Glukosil".
In severe cases, hospitalization is indicated. In the hospital, the patient is prescribed intravenous therapy with a solution of "Ringer", "Quartasol." Also injected glucose, prescribed enzyme medications ("Festal", "Pancreatin"), probiotics, anti-diarrhea.
To stabilize body temperature, it is necessary to take "Ibuprofen", "Paracetamol". Rotavirus enteric infection responds well to therapy. Treatment should be under the supervision of a physician. When bacteria are attached, antibiotics are necessarily prescribed, taking into account physiological features.
An indispensable point in the treatment of the pathogen is a dairy-free diet. In the first days of illness it is better to refuse food, it is better to consume plenty of fluids. Give preference to steam, boiled or baked dishes without salt, spices and pepper. Allowed to drink the compote of dried fruit, herbal tea, mineral water, jelly.
Chicken broths, boiled fish, legumes will help to fill the protein deficiency. Rotovirus intestinal infection in children is also based on a sparing diet. It is recommended to feed the child with lactose-free adapted mixtures, porridges on water, vegetable purees, and also to unsolder boiled water between meals. To restore the child's body, the pediatrician prescribes drugs with lactic acid bacteria.
How to protect yourself from infection?
In the EU countries, babies under 6 months of age are given a vaccine against the strains of this pathogen. There is no such practice in our country. Therefore, parents need to carefully monitor the hygiene of their offspring. From infancy to teach to cleanliness, annually to carry out immunomodulating manipulations and vitamin therapy. Other ways to protect against the disease have not yet come up. Wash your hands more often and clean your home, then a roto-intestinal infection will notice you less often. Symptoms and treatment are complex, so stay tuned for your health!