Every year in the world of medicine, lethal cases from intestinal flu are fixed. More often from infection suffer people of retirement age, with weakened immunity and small children. The peak of the number of cases falls on the autumn-winter period. Rotovirus intestinal infection is dangerous due to serious consequences associated with cardiac and kidney damage.
The causative agents of gastroenteritis are pathogenic microorganisms, viruses. The disease has a pronounced character, it is often combined with catarrhal symptoms. How insidious is the pathology, how can it be identified and eliminated? The article will cover all topical issues.
Characteristics of the disease
This is a viral disease, manifested by acute respiratory symptoms. Microscopic particles of the genus Reoviridae have the shape of a wheel and are very resistant to external factors. For a person, nine types of strains are a threat. Annually pathogenic microparticles undergo mutations and provoke serious complications. Often in the fight against the pathogen has to use the latest generation of antibiotics.
According to statistics, almost every child under 5 years of age suffered a disease. However, there is no guarantee that a rotovirus intestinal infection will not appear again. Symptoms and treatment are similar to cases of intoxication of the body, so therapy alone can not be prescribed. It is necessary to carry out a number of measures to strengthen protective forces and maintain hygiene in order to reduce the risk of infection.
The causative agent penetrates the body through the mouth, through dirty hands. There are suggestions that the pathological infection is transmitted by a drip (thrown into the environment when sneezing, coughing), but this fact remains in question. Also, strains of viruses can persist on food products, in water, household items. Everything to which the infected person touched, becomes dangerous for the healthy.
The causative agents are highly adaptable: they survive in the cold, they are not destroyed by chloride substances. It appears 3-5 days after infection with rotovirus intestinal infection. Treatment in children and adults must begin with the first manifestations. Once in the small intestine, the pathogenic microorganism attacks healthy cells, which leads to a violation of digestive activity.
As a result, there is severe diarrhea, vomiting opens, loss of nutrients and dehydration. The causative agent will progress until it destroys all epithelial cells. This period lasts for 7 days and is characterized by poisoning. Sometimes a bacterial flora joins the virus, then antibacterial drugs are prescribed.
Rotovirus intestinal infection in children: features of the course
Pediatric practice shows that for the first time a child becomes infected with pathology in infancy - from 6 to 12 months. This period is due to weak immune defense, when maternal antibodies decrease. The course of gastroenteritis (especially in the first two days) is very acute. There is a strong vomiting (not to be confused with regurgitation), frequent diarrhea (more than 10 times a day), there is a high fever.
Often causes spasms in the abdomen, pain, rumbling rotavirus intestinal infection. Treatment for children of such an early age should begin immediately. Sometimes requires hospitalization and IV fluids. When severe, increases the risk of dehydration. Which may occur due to the following signs that should alert parents:
- dryness and loss elastic the skin
- absence of urination more than six hours;
- "Rolled" eyeballs;
- significant weight loss.
With rational and timely therapy, catarrhal symptoms disappear on the fifth day. Re-infection occurs when the child enters the society (kindergarten, school). Children who have been infected with this virus tolerate the disease more easily.
As occurs in adults rotavirus intestinal infection?
Symptoms directly depend on the age and condition of the patient's body. In some cases, the pathology is characterized by a slight increase in temperature (up to 37.5 ° C), nausea, upset stomach, pain in the abdomen. With easy flow, the process of full recovery comes on the fifth day. Very rarely entails dysbiosis and enterocolitis. Rotovirus intestinal infection is a threat during pregnancy, as diarrhea, multiple vomiting, flatulence and spasms can trigger a contraction of the uterus.
Clinical manifestations are identical to food poisoning. Therefore, it is wrong to make a diagnosis on a visual examination and anamnesis. A reliable way to recognize the pathogen is immunochromatography (stool test), a blood test for leukocyte and ESR levels, and urine. The rotovirus intestinal infection differs from intoxication in the following aspects:
- seasonality of distribution (cold period),
- the appearance of a cold, sore throat, cough,
- inflammation of the eye.
Principles of therapy
Important moments in the treatment of the disease are: replenishment of lost fluid, getting rid of severe manifestations (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sore throat, runny nose). Antiviral drugs are useless in this case. Assign absorbents, such as: "Smecta", "Enterosgel", "Regidron", "Glucosil".
In severe cases, hospitalization is indicated. In the hospital, the patient is prescribed intravenous therapy with a solution of "Ringer", "Quartasol". Also introduce glucose, prescribe enzyme medicines ("Festal", "Pancreatin"), probiotics, antidiarrhoeals.
To stabilize body temperature, it is necessary to take "Ibuprofen", "Paracetamol". Rotovirus intestinal infection is well tolerated. Treatment should be under the supervision of a doctor. When bacteria are added, antibiotics must be prescribed taking into account physiological characteristics.
An indispensable point in the treatment of the pathogen is a dairy-free diet. In the first days of illness it is better to refuse food, it is better to consume plenty of fluids. Give preference to steam, boiled or baked dishes without salt, spices and pepper. Allowed to drink the compote of dried fruit, herbal tea, mineral water, jelly.
Chicken broths, boiled fish, legumes will help replenish the protein deficit. Rotovirus intestinal infection in children is also based on a sparing diet. It is recommended to feed the child with lactose-free adapted mixtures, porridges on water, vegetable purees, and also to drink off with boiled water between meals. To restore the child's body pediatrician appoints drugs with lactobacilli.
How to protect yourself from infection?
In the EU countries, children up to 6 months of age are given a vaccine against the strains of this pathogen. In our country there is no such practice. Therefore, parents need to carefully monitor the hygiene of their child. From infancy to accustom to cleanliness, annually to conduct immunomodulatory manipulation and vitamin therapy. Other ways to protect yourself from the disease have not yet been invented. Wash your hands more often and clean your home, then rotovirus intestinal infection will be much less likely to visit you. Symptoms and treatment are complex, so watch your health!