"My pedigree" by Alexander Pushkin
The poem “My Family Tree” (1830) is a kind of attempt by the poet to discover the world of his ancestors for himself, and also to understand what is destined for himself, as a successor of the great noble family.
At the same time, Pushkin is trying to disown noble origin: "I'm not a nobleman by the cross ... I'm just a Russian tradesman." Subsequently, in a letter to Benkendorf, he calls himself a commoner.
Pushkin's brief pedigree
The tree of the family of Alexander Sergeevich to the 4th generation includes the following ancestors:
Sarra Pushkin (Rzhevskaya) (1721-1790)
Abram Petrovich Hannibal (1696-1781)
Pushkin’s Alexander Sergeyevich pedigree begins to be studied especially actively from his great historical ancestor, Abram Petrovich Hannibal. Arap by birth, the great grandfather of the great poet on the maternal line. Before baptism, according to separate sources, bore the name Ibrahim. In Russia, he was brought from Constantinople, being a child, and presented to Emperor Peter the Great (1705-1706). The young arap became the emperor's godchild, was beside him all the time and accompanied on all trips.
From 1717 he studied engineering in Paris. In 1723 he returned to Russia and entered the military service. Hannibal also lectures, writes textbooks on fortification and geometry, maintains the imperial library, etc.
However, after the death of Peter Hannibal, they exiled him to Siberia, and in 1731 he was sent to the Baltic states. Here he settled for many years and was engaged in the construction of military fortifications and a port in the Estland province (Estonia), and in 1742 he became the chief commander of Revel (Tallinn).
Abram Petrovich was married twice. His first wife was Evdokia Dioper (1731), the daughter of the captain of the galley fleet. However, the relationship of the spouses did not work out, the marriage was short-lived. But the divorce process was delayed for many years. The spouses did not have joint children, respectively, Pushkin's pedigree is not connected with Evdokia Dioper. At the same time, after the conclusion of his wife’s custody, Hannibal left little daughter Evdokia Dioper and her lover, conductor Shishkov.
Osip Abramovich Hannibal (1744-1806)
The grandfather of the great poet was the third son in the family of Abram Petrovich and Christina Regina. Osip served in the naval artillery, and, rising to the rank of captain of the 2nd rank, he retired (1772). At the same time, however, he did not seek military honors. Osip Abramovich was distinguished by his generosity and wastefulness, which was the reason for his quarrel with his father. In 1773, Osip Abramovich was married to Maria Alekseevna Pushkina, the daughter of a former Tambov governor.
Due to the large debts that Osip Abramovich had, the spouses had to sell the village in the Yaroslavl district (given to Maria Alekseevna) and move to live with the husband’s parents. The troubles, however, did not end there. Some time later, after the birth of the daughter of Nadezhda (1755), Osip Abramovich secretly leaves his wife and settles in Mikhailovsky. Here he resorts to deception (declares his wife dead) and enters into a second marriage - with landowner Ustina Tolstoy, the widow of the captain. Along the way, the frivolous hero manages to make new debts and solve them with the help of his second wife.
However, the deception was discovered, after which complaints from both wives fell on Osip Abramovich. At the same time, Maria Alekseevna even resorted to the patronage of Empress Catherine II. As a result, Osip Abramovich was sent to ship service in the Black Sea for 7 years (where the events of the Russian-Turkish war were unfolding at that moment), and his second marriage was considered invalid. Accordingly, the pedigree of Pushkin was not associated with the name of Ustinya Tolstoy.
The rest of his life Osip Abramovich lived in Mikhailovsky. His daughter Nadezhda, born in her first marriage, continued to be brought up with her mother.
Nadezhda Pushkina (1775-1836)
Thus, the pedigree of Pushkin continued on Nadezhda Pushkin's Osipovna (nee Hannibal) - the mother of the future poet. She was very pretty - in society she was called a beautiful Creolca, well-read and educated. In secular society, Nadezhda Osipovna behaved easily and naturally, causing universal admiration. One of the admirers of the “beautiful creole” was Sergei Lvovich Pushkin, the future father of the great poet. Their marriage, concluded in 1796, successfully existed for 40 years, until the death of Nadezhda Osipovna.
Touching in their love for each other, the spouses Pushkins, however, did not have a special sensitivity towards their children. The upbringing style in the family was predominantly despotic. The relationship between mother and son, Alexander Pushkin, has long been difficult. In this regard, the young poet received his admission to the Lyceum rather with joy and relief than with sadness. However, at a more mature age, mother and son become closer to each other. And during Pushkin’s Mikhail link, it was Nadezhda Osipovna who applied for her son to leave for treatment from the village.
She was buried Nadezhda Osipovna was in Svyatogorsky monastery. The pedigree of Pushkin Alexander Sergeevich, thus, ends here. Being present at the burial, Pushkin himself expressed a desire to be buried in the future next to his mother.