It is known that speech is not a gift that appears with the birth of a person. In order to properly form it in a pupil, adults need to make a lot of effort. A speech development session should be given to the parents of a baby from the first days of his birth. Teachers of educational institutions dealing with children of preschool and school age, also have a lot of hard work on the formation of speech skills.
Where to start
The result of inadequate attention of adults to the work on the speech of the baby is the delay in its development, which, in turn, negatively affects the formation of memory, perception, thinking, imagination, and the sensual sphere. In short, speech is a skill that affects the quality of a person’s entire life. That is why work on its development must begin as early as possible.
With regular contact with the baby, in the first weeks of life, he begins to develop the ability to listen to the sounds of speech, to focus attention on them. During this period, the baby is already able to distinguish human speech from the general flow of its surrounding sounds.
The ability to distinguish the intonation with which an adult turns to the child and react to it accordingly is the next step in the work when speech is formed. This skill is noted in most babies by four to five months. Further work on the development of speech skills in infants is aimed at the ability to understand the meaning of words, short phrases and to respond to them correctly.
Tips for conducting classes aimed at the development of speech
At first glance, the recommendations below seem very simple. But experience suggests that their observance gives an effective result. Parents and teachers should:
- talk to the baby as much as possible;
- repeat the same trick several times during the day;
- often turn to the baby with the words of affection, show your benevolent attitude.
All actions performed at the time of communication with the child, you need to perform on the background of sounding speech, that is, an adult pronounces what he does and for what.
The speech of an adult should be emotional and expressive, to be a role model.
The role of small literary genres in child development
Russian speech, decorated with short rhymes, is always attractive to listeners. Toddlers show a genuine interest in jokes, rushes, jokes, sentences. Adults need to skillfully use this natural craving of children for folk art.
Reading poems is recommended to accompany certain movements of the arms, legs, fingers and other parts of the body of the child. Such exercises help the child to understand that each spoken word has a specific meaning, indicating the object, its sign or action. Playing with an adult, the child expands its passive vocabulary. In addition, he learns to execute commands that are given in words.
Parents need to know that such games as “Guli have arrived”, “Ladushki”, “Forty-crow” and many others are not just fun, but techniques aimed at developing the speech of the baby. Neglecting such exercises is not worth it.
Organization of special classes
It is a complex skill to the full development of which requires specially organized training of children. That is why most of the time in training and development of children in schools and kindergartens is given to language development.
At special classes in kindergarten and school lessons it is recommended to include the following types of work:
- enrichment of the passive and active vocabulary of the child;
- development of dialogic and monologue speech;
- familiarization with the works of fiction, created by the masters of the word;
- learning by heart;
The result of a systematic work should be the child’s ability to describe the subject in detail, to present the course of certain events, to conduct elementary arguments with evidence.
Requirements for speech baby
Teachers and parents are obliged to know what literary norms a child’s speech should meet. This is a complex of characteristics.
In monologic speech of students viewed the correct grammatical structure of sentences – they can be simple or complex. The sound corresponds to the orthoepic norms. It tonally colored. There are no defects in the pronunciation of individual sounds. Active vocabulary is quite varied – the child uses the same root word, which is so rich Russian speech. In addition, the student cleverly uses the forms of the same word.
The whole process of learning the language takes a long time, requires diligence on the part of the child and the adults who deal with it.
Each class of speech development is aimed at the formation of a particular skill. From this will largely depend on its structure.
Most often, these lessons begin with what children are listening to coherent text. Its scope and content depend on the age of the pupils. At this stage the adult can read the artwork, to talk about some event from his face, to talk with children on the topic of using specially prepared questions.
Next, on the prepared language material, exercises are conducted aimed at enriching the vocabulary, developing phonemic hearing, and grammar of the language. And also diction, the necessary intonation is fulfilled. For these purposes, separate sentences, phrases, words, letter combinations taken from a text already familiar to children are used.
Work on connected text
As a child grows up, namely at preschool and younger school age, adults face a task, as a result of the solution of which his own speech should be formed. This ability can be assessed during the free oral speech of children on a particular topic. Also, the level of proficiency in speech is well viewed when students perform such types of written work as writing and writing.
The list of types of tasks used in the work on coherent text is huge, but it is possible to identify those that are most popular with children and teachers.
The work of drawing up the story on the picture, you can start very early. In this case, the content of pictures can be very diverse. The main condition is that it should be clear to the child and correspond to his age.
Retelling the text with a change in its beginning or end is like children-visionaries. It is important for the teacher only to listen carefully to the narrator and to correct the errors arising in speech in an unobtrusive way.
Similar actions are required from the teacher when retelling is performed with a change in the person from whom the narration is conducted. Of particular interest are exercises where the child is invited to become a direct participant in the events and tell a story in the first person.
Due to the regular implementation of such exercises, children subsequently successfully master the skills of monologic speaking and writing.