It is known that speech is not a gift that appears with the birth of a person. To properly form it in the pupil, adults need to make a lot of effort. The development of speech should be taught to the child's parents from the very first days of their birth. Teachers of educational institutions dealing with children of preschool and school age will also have to work hard and painstakingly to develop their speech skills.
How to start
The result of insufficient attention of adults to work on the baby's speech is the delay in its development, which, in turn, negatively affects the formation of memory, perception, thinking, imagination, the sensory sphere. In short, speech is an ability that affects the quality of a person's whole life. That is why the work on its development must begin as early as possible.
With regular communication with the baby, already in the first weeks of his life, he begins to develop the ability to listen to the sounds of speech, to focus attention on them. During this period, the baby is already able to distinguish human speech from the general flow of the surrounding sounds.
The ability to distinguish between the intonation with which an adult turns to a baby and react to it appropriately is the next step in the work when speech is formed. This ability is noted in most babies by four to five months. Further work on the development of speech skills in infants is aimed at understanding the meaning of words, short phrases and responding to them correctly.
Tips for conducting classes aimed at developing speech
At first glance, the recommendations given below seem very simple. But experience shows that their observance gives an effective result. Parents and teachers should:
- talk as much as possible with the baby;
- the same procedure should be repeated several times during the day;
- more often to address to the kid with words of caress, to show the benevolent mood.
All actions performed at the time of communication with the child must be performed against the background of the sounding speech, that is, the adult utters what he does and for what.
The speech of an adult should be emotional and expressive, a role model.
The role of small literary genres in child development
Russian speech, decorated with short rhymes, is always attractive to listeners. Kids show a genuine interest in jokes, nursery rhymes, jokes, and verdicts. Adults need to skillfully use this natural craving for children to folk creativity.
Reading of poems is recommended to accompany certain movements of the hands, feet, fingers and other parts of the child's body. Such exercises help the child understand that every spoken word has a definite meaning, indicates the object, its sign or action. Playing with an adult, the child expands his passive vocabulary. In addition, he learns to execute commands that are given by a word.
Parents need to know that games such as "Guli arrived", "Ladushki", "Magpie-Crow" and many others are not just fun, but receptions aimed at developing the speech of the baby. To neglect such exercises is not worth it.
Organization of special classes
It is a complex skill to the full development of which requires specially organized training of children. That is why most of the time in training and development of children in schools and kindergartens is given to language development.
It is recommended that special classes in the kindergarten and school lessons include the following types of work:
- enriching the child's passive and active vocabulary;
- development of dialogical and monologic speech;
- familiarization with works of fiction, created by the masters of the word;
- memorizing by heart;
The result of systematic work should be the child's ability to describe the subject in detail, to state the course of certain events, to conduct elementary reasoning with the bringing of evidence.
Requirements to the speech of the baby
Teachers and parents are required to know what literary norms the speech of the child must match. This is a whole set of characteristics.
In monologic speech of students viewed the correct grammatical structure of sentences – they can be simple or complex. The sound corresponds to the orthoepic norms. It tonally colored. There are no defects in the pronunciation of individual sounds. Active vocabulary is quite varied – the child uses the same root word, which is so rich Russian speech. In addition, the student cleverly uses the forms of the same word.
The whole process of mastering the language takes a long time, requires diligence on the part of the child and adults who are engaged with it.
Structure of lessons
Each lesson on the development of speech is aimed at the formation of a certain skill. From this in many ways will depend on its structure.
Most often, these lessons begin with what children are listening to coherent text. Its scope and content depend on the age of the pupils. At this stage the adult can read the artwork, to talk about some event from his face, to talk with children on the topic of using specially prepared questions.
Further on the prepared linguistic material exercises are carried out, aimed at enriching vocabulary, development of phonemic hearing, grammar of the language. And also diction, the necessary intonation is practiced. For these purposes, separate sentences, phrases, words, and combinations of letters, which are already familiar to children, are used.
Work on coherent text
As the child grows up, namely, in the preschool and junior school age, the problem arises for adults, as a result of which the decision of his independent speech should be formed. This ability can be assessed during free oral statements of children on a particular topic. Also, the level of possession of speech can be easily viewed when students perform such kinds of written works as writing and writing.
The list of types of tasks used in the work on a coherent text is huge, but one can distinguish those that are most popular among children and teachers.
Work on drawing a story on a picture can begin very early. Thus the contents of pictures can be the most various. The main condition - it should be clear to the child and appropriate to his age.
The retelling of the text with a change in its beginning or end is like children-dreamers. It is important for the teacher only to listen carefully to the narrator and correct the mistakes arising in the speech inadvertently.
Similar actions are required from the teacher, when a retelling is performed with a change in the person from whom the narrative is being written. Of particular interest are the exercises, where the child is invited to become a direct participant in the events and tell the story from the first person.
Thanks to the regular implementation of such exercises, children subsequently master successfully the skills of monologic oral and written speech.