Since ancient times, mankind has known fairy tales. They have always served as an auxiliary tool for shaping and adjusting a child’s behavior, instilling in him ideas of good and evil, justice and injustice. Now, fairy tales have become the object of a whole science - fairy tale therapy, which at the professional level forms recommendations for the development and upbringing of children.
General characteristics of fairy tale therapy
Fairy tale treatment applies to both children and adults. However, due to the peculiarities of the development of the psyche, emotions and will, fairy-tale therapy is most effective for preschoolers. It is necessary if a child has behavioral and emotional problems: self-doubt, capriciousness, anxiety, shyness, fear. Also, this method can help children with hearing, vision, and musculoskeletal disorders. Of course, the correction of preschool children with fairy tale therapy can be carried out only by a specialist in this field - a child psychologist or a teacher.
If a child has this kind of problems and parents understand that they cannot cope with them on their own, then it is necessary to contact a professional.
Types of "therapeutic" tales
Undeveloped speech is becoming an increasingly serious and pressing problem of our time. This is facilitated by cheap modern literature, a decrease in the level of culture, the primitive language of cartoons and commercials. In this regard, modern science faces the task of finding new forms of upbringing and education of children, forming the prerequisites for their all-round development. In the forefront in this process is the creation of a child's literate speech. It should be noted that the intellectual growth of the baby depends on the level of development of speech abilities, therefore such a problem should be given serious attention. Many scientists with the help of the research have shown that the development of preschooler's speech fairy-tale therapy is the most effective and accessible way for him to improve his speaking skills.
The goals and principles of speech fairy tale therapy
The purpose of such work is always the use of fairy tales as a means of developing coherent speech among preschoolers. It is possible to achieve this goal by analyzing the works of domestic and foreign scientists on this topic, the practical use of existing methods to solve problems of speech development with the subsequent identification of the effectiveness of each stage of the work performed.
Fairy tale therapy for preschoolers should be a process that is based on the following basic principles:
- Corrections should be approached gradually, starting with simple exercises and ending with more complex ones.
- In the process of work, it is necessary to create conditions that will help the child self-actualize thanks to the knowledge and experience gained.
- A necessary condition for quality work is the presence of integrity and continuity. In other words, it is impossible to restrict the activities of one specialist, to help him should come both parents and educators.
Tasks of fairy tale therapy
The program on fairy tale therapy for preschoolers sets itself the achievement of the following tasks:
- The development of speech with the help of retellings, stories from a third person, co-telling and storytelling in a circle, as well as composing your own fairy tales.
- Identifying the creative abilities of the child, assisting in their development.
- Reducing aggressiveness and anxiety.
- The development of communication skills.
- Learning to overcome fears and difficulties.
- The development of the ability to competently express emotions.
- Creating a stable relationship between a child, parent and teacher.
How useful speech fairy tale therapy for preschoolers
Features of the mental development of children are such that a well-developed figurative thinking allows them to think about phenomena and objects, as well as to compare them even when they are inaccessible to vision. Listening to a fairy tale, the child forms a model of reality, interprets what is happening in it into reality.
The use of fairy tales for preschoolers depends on their age and the object of the work. From the age of 3, children prefer to listen to stories about animals, about their interaction with people. This is justified by the fact that at this time they often associate themselves with animals, sometimes reincarnate into them and imitate them.
At the age of 5-6 years, preschooler begins to associate themselves with people and are therefore more susceptible to fairy tales "with a human face". The main purpose of this period is a moral lesson that needs to understand and comprehend the child.
Properly selected fairy tales will be easily perceived by children and will develop their speech through perception, memorization and interpretation of what they hear. The decisive factor in the upbringing of the child will be quality fairy tale therapy for preschoolers. Summaries of employment is not difficult to find. Therefore, in some cases, you can try to conduct an independent "recovery".
Fairy tale therapy for preschoolers: a summary of the development of speech in the fairy tale "Fly Tsukotuha"
- Common tasks: to generate knowledge of insects in the environment, relieve tension with the help of music and various exercises.
- Tasks for speech development: using adjectives to replenish your child's vocabulary to develop expressive speech by answering questions, teach to enunciate the sounds to develop Dialogic communication.
- Tasks for education: instill a love for fairy tales, teach empathy, do good deeds and treat people kindly.
It is also necessary to “enter” the fairy tale correctly, to prepare children for the start of the magical journey. You can tell them that they are flying on a flying carpet, and after landing, they will end up in a magical fairyland. At this time, the soundtrack should sound with the singing of birds and the sounds of nature. Then the children put on insect hats and the tale begins.
While playing a fairy tale, children get into their roles, they are interested in events. It is important that each child independently speaks the text prepared by him. The various parts of the work will help to carry out many useful exercises
In the process of storytelling, a lot of vocabulary work is carried out, the “Enjoying” exercise, which consists in admiring a fly, and empathy and noble feelings develop. The dialogue becomes interesting for children, and the verse form of presentation of the work helps to consolidate the diversity of words and expressions.
During the play of a fairy tale, you can also talk about the fact that you can’t leave a friend in need, hold articulation gymnastics, during which children have to show with emotions how jam is tasty in a fly. The exercise “Fear”, which is necessary to carry out during the theft by a fly spider, will teach children to depict a fright, will play an important role in the development of facial expressions.
It is also important to make the right “way out” of the fairy tale, ask the children to remember all the important points and explain the benefits of the lesson.
Techniques used in speech therapy
The development of speech by fairy tales includes a series of sequential actions and techniques, including directorial, word play and commenting, pantomime, musical and rhythmic puzzles. Joint improvisation, fantasy with music and speech games are often effective.
Fairy tale therapy for preschoolers is an effective method in speech therapy, thanks to her, the child develops many useful skills, including independence, activity, creativity, and emotionality.
Vocabulary work with the fairy tale as art form and system of knowledge about the world forms the child's active vocabulary, verbal and non-verbal imagination, lays the Foundation of his creative abilities. Also thanks to the tale preschooler gains experience, learns to understand others, creates metaphors.
Of course, in the development of speech, various ways are effective, such as memorizing poems, repeating patters many times, and mimic exercises. However, perhaps the most effective, interesting and informative way to improve conversational skills is fairy tale therapy for preschoolers. Examples of fairy tales are in the public domain, and if desired, parents, without referring to a specialist, can independently try this effective method on their child.