Mikhail Bulgakov, whose books are almost always heard, has become a real classic, whose descendants will never be forgotten. He predicted the fate of his works with one ingenious phrase: "Manuscripts do not burn!"
Bulgakov was born May 3, 1891 in Kiev in the family of Professor of the Theological Academy Afanasy Ivanovich Bulgakov and Varvara Mikhailovna, nee Pokrovskaya. The future writer, graduating from high school, entered the medical institute of his native city, wishing to follow in the footsteps of his famous uncle NM Pokrovsky. In 1916, after graduation, he practiced for several months in the front zone. Then he worked as a venereologist, and during the civil war he managed to work for both the white and the reds and stay alive.
Works of Bulgakov
His busy literary life began after he moved to Moscow. There, in well-known publishing houses, he prints his satirical articles. Then he writes the book "Fatal eggs" and "The Devil's" (1925). Behind them creates the play "Days of Turbins." Bulgakov's works provoked sharp criticism from many, but, however that may be, with each masterpiece of admirers he wrote, it became more and more. As a writer he enjoyed great success. Then, in 1928, he had an idea about writing the novel "Master and Margarita".
In 1939 the writer worked on a play about Stalin, "Batum," and when she was ready to stage and Bulgakov went with his wife and colleagues to Georgia, a telegram soon arrived, stating that Stalin considered it inappropriate to put a play on himself. This greatly undermined the health of the writer, he began to lose his sight, and then the doctors diagnosed his kidney disease. From pain Bulgakov again began to use morphine, which he took back in 1924. At the same time, the writer dictated to his wife the last pages of the manuscript "Master and Margarita." A quarter of a century on the pages were found traces of the drug.
He died in 48 years on March 10, 1940. He was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow. Mikhail Bulgakov, whose books eventually became real bestsellers, to speak modern language, and still stir the minds of men who are trying to unravel his codes and messages, was really great. It is a fact. Bulgakov's works are still relevant, they have not lost their sense and fascination.
"Master and Margarita" is a novel that became the reference book of millions of readers, and not only Bulgakov's compatriots, but the whole world. Several decades have passed, and the plot still stirs the minds, attracts mysticism and riddles, which lead to various philosophical and religious reflections. "Master and Margarita" is a novel studied in schools, and this even though not every person savvy in literature can understand the design of this masterpiece. Bulgakov began writing a novel in the 1920s, then, with all the amendments in the title and title, the work was finally drawn up in 1937. But in the USSR the full book was published only in 1973.
The novel was influenced by the fascination of MA Bulgakov with various mystical literature, German mythology of the XIX century, the Holy Scripture, Goethe's Faust, and many other demonological works.
Impresses many of the main characters in the novel - Woland. Not particularly thoughtful and gullible readers, this Prince of Darkness may seem an ardent fighter for justice and good, acting against the vices of people. There are also opinions that in this image Bulgakov depicted Stalin. But Woland is not so simple to understand, this character is very multifaceted and heavy, this is the image that defines the real Tempter. This is a real prototype of the Antichrist, which people should perceive as a new Messiah.
"Fatal eggs" - another fantastic novel by Bulgakov, published in 1925. He moved his heroes in 1928. The protagonist - the brilliant inventor, the professor of zoology of Persikov, once makes a unique discovery - he discovers a phenomenal stimulant, the red ray of life, which, by acting on living embryos, forces them to develop faster and they become larger than their usual counterparts. And they are aggressive and multiply incredibly fast.
Well, further in the work "Fatal eggs" everything develops exactly as in Bismarck's words that the revolution is prepared by geniuses, romantic fanatics make it, but rascals are used by rascals. And it turned out: Persikov was the genius who created the revolutionary idea in biology, Ivanov - a fanatic, who embodied the ideas of the professor in life, having built cameras. A rogue - Rock, who is not clear where he came from and just as suddenly disappeared.
According to philologists, Persikov's prototype could be the Russian biologist AG Gurvich, who discovered mitogenetic radiation, and, in fact, the leader of the proletariat, VI Lenin.
"Days of the Turbins" - a play by Bulgakov, created by him in 1925 (in the Moscow Art Theater they wanted to stage a performance based on his novel "The White Guard"). The plot was based on the memoirs of the writer of the times of the Civil War about the fall of the regime of Ukrainian hetman Pavel Skoropadsky, then about Petlyura's coming to power and his expulsion from the city by Bolshevik revolutionaries. Against the backdrop of constant struggle and a change of power, the family tragedy of the Turbins, in which the foundations of the old world break down, is parallel. Bulgakov then lived in Kiev (1918-1919 gg.) A year later the play was staged, then it was repeatedly edited and changed the name.
"Days of Turbins" is a play that today's critics consider the top of the writer's theatrical success. However, at the very beginning, her stage destiny was complex and unpredictable. The play was a huge success, but it caused devastating critical reviews. In 1929, she was removed from the repertoire, Bulgakov was accused of philistinism and propaganda of the white movement. But at the direction of Stalin, who loved this play, the play was restored. For a writer who was interrupted by casual earnings, staging at the Moscow Art Theater was practically the only source of income.
About myself and the bureaucracy
"Notes on cuffs" - a story that is somewhat autobiographical. Bulgakov wrote it in the period from 1922 to 1923. During his life, she was not published, today part of the text is lost. The main motive of the work "Notes on Cuffs" was the problematic relationship between the writer and the authorities. He described in great detail his life in the Caucasus, the debate about AS Pushkin, the first months in Moscow and the desire to emigrate. Bulgakov really intended to flee abroad in 1921, but he did not have the money to pay the captain of the navigable machine going to Constantinople.
"Diabolia" is a story that was created in 1925. Bulgakov called himself a mystic, but despite the declared mysticism, the content of this work was a picture of everyday everyday life, where, following Gogol, he showed the irrationality and illogicality of social being. This is the basis of the Bulgakov satire.
"Diabolia" is a story in which the story takes place in the mystical whirlwind of a bureaucratic whirlwind with the rustle of papers on the tables and in the endless hustle and bustle. The main character - a small official Korotkov - chasing the long corridors and floors behind some mythical head Kalsoner, which then appears, then disappears, then generally bifurcated. In this tireless pursuit, Korotkov loses both himself and his name. And then he turns into a miserable and defenseless little man. As a result, Korotkov, to escape from this enchanted cycle, remains one thing - to rush from the roof of a skyscraper.
The illusion of freedom
In his book, Bulgakov raises a very important topic for him on the example of Moliere: power and art, how free the artist can be. When Moliere's patience was exhausted, he exclaimed that he hated the royal tyranny. Similarly, Bulgakov hated the tyranny of Stalin. And to somehow persuade himself, he writes that, it turns out, evil is not concluded in supreme power, but surrounded by the leader, in officials and newspaper Pharisees. In the 1930s, there really existed a considerable part of the intelligentsia, who believed in Stalin's innocence and non-participation, and Bulgakov also nourished himself with such illusions. Mikhail Afanasyevich tried to understand one of the artist's features - the fateful loneliness among people.
Satire on power
Bulgakov's novel "The Heart of a Dog" became another Bulgakov masterpiece, which he wrote in 1925. The most common political interpretation boils down to the idea of a "Russian revolution" and to "awaken" the social consciousness of the proletariat. One of the main characters is Sharikov, who received a large number of rights and freedoms. And then he quickly reveals selfish interests, he betrays and destroys those who are similar to him, and those who gave him all these rights. The end of this work shows that the fate of the creators of Sharikov is predetermined. In his story Bulgakov as if predicts the massive Stalinist repression of the 1930s.
Bulgakov's novel "The Heart of a Dog" many literary critics consider a political satire on the government of that time. And here are their main roles: Sharikov-Chugunkin is none other than Stalin himself (as the "iron surname" says), Preobrazhensky-Lenin (the one who transformed the country), Bormental (constantly in conflict with Sharikov) -Trotsky ( Bronstein), Shvonder-Kamenev, Zina-Zinoviev, Daria-Dzerzhinsky, and so on.
At a meeting of writers in Gazetny Lane where the manuscript was read, an OGPU agent was present, who noted that such things read in a brilliant literary circle in the capital could be much more dangerous than the speeches of 101st-century writers at the meetings of the All-Russian Poets Union.