Magnetic materials are those which are affected by special force fields, in turn, nonmagnetic materials are not affected or is hardly affected by the strength of the magnetic field, which is usually present with force lines (magnetic flux) with certain properties. Except that they always form closed loops, they behave as if they are elastic, that is, during the distortion, trying to get back in the same distance and in their natural form.
Magnets tend to attract certain metals, especially iron and steel, and Nickel, alloys of Nickel, chromium and cobalt. Materials, creating forces of attraction are the magnets. There are different types of them. Materials that can easily be magnetized, are called ferromagnetic. They can be hard or soft. Soft ferromagnetic materials such as iron, quickly lose their properties. Magnets made from these materials are called temporary. Hard materials such as steel, keep their properties much longer and are used as constants.
Magnetic flux: definition and characterization
There is a certain force field around the magnet, and this creates the possibility of energy. The magnetic flux is equal to the product of the average force fields perpendicular to the surface into which it penetrates. It is depicted using the symbol "Φ", it is measured in units called Webers (WB). The magnitude of the stream passing through a given area will vary from one point to another around the object. Thus, magnetic flux is a so-called measure of the strength of a magnetic field or of an electric current, based on the total number of charged field lines passing through a specific area.
Revealing the mystery of magnetic flux
All magnets, regardless of their shape, have two areas, called poles, capable of producing a certain chain of an organized and balanced system of invisible lines of force. These lines from the stream form a particular field, the shape of which appears more intensely in some parts than others. The areas with the highest attraction are called poles. Lines of a vector field cannot be detected with the naked eye. Visually, they are always displayed in the form of lines of force with unique poles at each end of the material, where the lines are more dense and concentrated. Magnetic flux is the lines that create a vibration of attraction or repulsion, showing their direction and intensity.
Magnetic flux lines
Magnetic lines of force are defined as curves moving along a specific trajectory in a magnetic field. The tangent to these curves at any point indicates the direction of the magnetic field in it. Specifications:
Each flow line forms a closed loop.
These induction lines never intersect, but tend to shrink or stretch, changing their dimensions in one direction or another.
As a rule, lines of force have a beginning and an end on the surface.
There is also a definite direction from north to south.
Power lines, which are located close to each other, forming a strong magnetic field.
Power lines that are farther apart indicate a weak magnetic field.
Magnetic Molecules and Weber's Theory
Weber's theory is based on the fact that all atoms have magnetic properties due to the bond between electrons in atoms. Groups of atoms are joined together in such a way that the surrounding fields rotate in the same direction. Such materials consist of groups of tiny magnets (if we consider them at the molecular level) around atoms, which means that the ferromagnetic material consists of molecules that are characterized by gravitational forces. These are known as dipoles and are grouped into domains. When the material is magnetized, all domains become one. The material loses its ability to attract and repel in the event that its domains are separated. Dipoles together form a magnet, but individually each of them tries to push off from a unipolar one, thus the opposite poles attract.
Fields and Poles
The strength and direction of the magnetic field is determined by the magnetic flux lines. The region of attraction is stronger where the lines are closely located to each other. The lines are closest at the pole of the rod base, where the attraction is the strongest. The planet Earth itself is in this powerful force field. It acts as if a giant band magnetized plate passes through the middle of the planet. The north pole of the compass needle points in the direction of a point called the North Magnetic Pole, while the south pole points to the magnetic south. However, these areas differ from the geographic North and South poles.
Nature of magnetism
Magnetism plays an important role in electrical engineering and electronics, because without it components, such as relays, solenoids, inductors, chokes, coils will not work on loudspeakers, motors, generators, transformers, electricity meters, etc. Magnets can be found in a natural state in the form of magnetic ores. There are two main types, it is magnetite (also called ferric oxide) and lodestone. The molecular structure of this material in non-magnetic state are presented in the form of loose magnetic chains or individual tiny particles that are freely suspended in a random order. When the material is magnetized, it is a random arrangement of molecules changes and the tiny random molecular particles are arranged in such a way that they produce a whole series of agreements. This idea of the molecular alignment of ferromagnetic materials is called the theory of Weber.
Measurement and practical application
The most common generators use magnetic flux to produce electricity. Its strength is widely used in electric generators. The device, which serves to measure this interesting phenomenon, is called a fluxmeter, it consists of a coil and electronic equipment, which evaluates the change in voltage in the coil. In physics, the flow is called the indicator of the number of lines of force passing through a certain area. Magnetic flux is a measure of the number of magnetic lines of force.
Sometimes even a non-magnetic material may also have diamagnetic and paramagnetic properties. An interesting fact is that the forces of attraction can be destroyed when heated or hit with a hammer of the same material, but they cannot be destroyed or isolated if you just break a large specimen into two parts. Each broken piece will have its own North and South Pole, and no matter how small these pieces will be.