Magnetic materials are those which are affected by special force fields, in turn, nonmagnetic materials are not affected or is hardly affected by the strength of the magnetic field, which is usually present with force lines (magnetic flux) with certain properties. Except that they always form closed loops, they behave as if they are elastic, that is, during the distortion, trying to get back in the same distance and in their natural form.
Magnets tend to attract certain metals, especially iron and steel, and Nickel, alloys of Nickel, chromium and cobalt. Materials, creating forces of attraction are the magnets. There are different types of them. Materials that can easily be magnetized, are called ferromagnetic. They can be hard or soft. Soft ferromagnetic materials such as iron, quickly lose their properties. Magnets made from these materials are called temporary. Hard materials such as steel, keep their properties much longer and are used as constants.
Magnetic Flow: Definition and Characteristics
A certain force field exists around the magnet, and this creates the possibility of the appearance of energy. The magnetic flux is equal to the product of the average force fields perpendicular to the surface into which it penetrates. It is represented by the symbol "Φ", measured in units called Webers (WB). The amount of flow passing through a given area will vary from one point to another around the object. Thus, the magnetic flux is the so-called measure of the strength of a magnetic field or electric current, based on the total number of charged lines of force passing through a certain region.
Disclosing the mystery of magnetic fluxes
All magnets, regardless of their shape, have two areas, called poles, capable of producing a certain chain of an organized and balanced system of invisible lines of force. These lines from the stream form a special field, the shape of which manifests itself more intensively in some parts than in others. Areas with the greatest attraction are called poles. Lines of the vector field can not be detected with the naked eye. Visually they are always displayed in the form of lines of force with single-valued poles at each end of the material, where the lines are denser and more concentrated. A magnetic flux is a line that creates a vibration of attraction or repulsion, showing their direction and intensity.
Lines of magnetic flux
Magnetic force lines are defined as curves that travel along a certain trajectory in a magnetic field. The tangent to these curves at any point shows the direction of the magnetic field in it. Characteristics:
Each flow line forms a closed loop.
These induction lines never intersect, but tend to contract or stretch, changing their dimensions in one direction or another.
As a rule, the lines of force have a beginning and an end on the surface.
There is also a certain direction from north to south.
Power lines that are close to each other, forming a strong magnetic field.
The lines of force that are farther away from each other indicate a weak magnetic field.
Magnetic Molecules and Weber's Theory
Weber's theory is based on the fact that all atoms have magnetic properties due to the bond between electrons in atoms. Groups of atoms are joined together in such a way that the surrounding fields rotate in the same direction. Such materials consist of groups of tiny magnets (if considered at the molecular level) around atoms, which means that the ferromagnetic material consists of molecules that are characterized by attractive forces. They are known as dipoles and are grouped into domains. When the material is magnetized, all domains become a single whole. The material loses its ability to attract and repel in the event that its domains are disconnected. Dipoles in aggregate form a magnet, but individually each of them tries to push away from the unipolar, thus attracting opposite poles.
Fields and poles
The strength and direction of the magnetic field is determined by magnetic flux lines. The region of attraction is stronger where the lines are close to each other. The lines are closest to the pole of the rod base, where the attraction is the strongest. The planet Earth itself is in this powerful force field. It acts as if a giant striped magnetized plate passes through the middle of the planet. The north pole of the compass needle points toward the point, called the North Magnetic Pole, with the south pole it points to the magnetic south. However, these directions differ from the geographical North and South poles.
The nature of magnetism
Magnetism plays an important role in electrical engineering and electronics, because without it components, such as relays, solenoids, inductors, chokes, coils will not work on loudspeakers, motors, generators, transformers, electricity meters, etc. Magnets can be found in a natural state in the form of magnetic ores. There are two main types, it is magnetite (also called ferric oxide) and lodestone. The molecular structure of this material in non-magnetic state are presented in the form of loose magnetic chains or individual tiny particles that are freely suspended in a random order. When the material is magnetized, it is a random arrangement of molecules changes and the tiny random molecular particles are arranged in such a way that they produce a whole series of agreements. This idea of the molecular alignment of ferromagnetic materials is called the theory of Weber.
Measurement and practical application
The most common generators use a magnetic flux to generate electricity. Its power is widely used in electric generators. The device that serves to measure this interesting phenomenon is called a fluxmeter, it consists of a coil and electronic equipment that estimates the voltage change in the coil. In physics, the flow is the indicator of the number of lines of force passing through a certain region. A magnetic flux is a measure of the number of magnetic lines of force.
Sometimes even a non-magnetic material can also have diamagnetic and paramagnetic properties. An interesting fact is that the forces of attraction can be destroyed by heating or hammering with the same material, but they can not be destroyed or isolated if one simply breaks a large copy into two parts. Each broken piece will have its own north and south pole, and no matter how small these pieces are.