Most often, literally passing someone's words, people do not think that use of his statement sentences with direct speech. If they are put on paper they will require correct schematic writing with the design using special punctuation – quotation marks.
Any statement, whether it is mental or voiced, can be written down as a sentence with direct speech or narration. In the modern Russian language, there are constructions with direct, spontaneous-direct speech, indirect, and dialogue.
What is direct speech?
- “Something has gotten cold, maybe the hail has passed nearby,” thought Peter.
- I order you: "Leave your brother alone, let him deal with his life."
- “Why is no one here,” Alenka was surprised, “did I come earlier or be late?”
- "That's always the way," Grandma sighed heavily.
Few people know that the first books were printed without punctuation, but such a concept as “quotes” was first used in literature at the end of the 18th century. It is believed that this symbol was put into use for writing Karamzin N. M. Most likely, they received their name from the dialectal word “kavysh”, which meant “duckling”. Similar to the traces of duck paws, quotes caught on and became a punctuation mark when writing names and transferring other people's words.
Making designs that transmit someone else's speech
Each sentence with direct speech can be represented as a diagram.
- "P" - a. “Here it was necessary to turn left,” said the passenger to the driver.
- “P!” - a. “You were not standing here, young man!” - the grandmother shouted from the end of the line.
- "P?" - a. “Why did you follow me?” I asked the old dog.
- A: "P". Mom turned to her son: "After school, go to the store for bread."
- A: “P!” The grandmother moved the plate back to her grandson: “Eat, otherwise you will not go for a walk!”
- A: “P?” The teacher looked up in surprise: “What are you going to do with such marks?”
These are examples of solid direct offers.
Schema "torn" straight construction
- “P, - a, - p”. "Just think, injection, - said the girl to the nurse, - once and ready."
- “P, - and. - P". “Tell me when you get there,” said Mom. “I will be calmer.”
- A: “P” - a. The announcer said: “This was the latest news,” and passed the floor to the forecasters.
- A: “P!” - a. The girl shouted in despair: "I still have a dog!" - and ran away in tears.
- A: “P?” - a. The woman screamed, “How is that possible?” And collapsed on the bench.
- “P, - and, - P. P”. “We feel so good together,” said Ira, “as before. Let's not part anymore. ”
- “P, - and. - P". “It’s not enough to make delicious food,” said the chef. “It must also be properly filed.”
The outline of a sentence with direct speech clearly shows how punctuation marks should be arranged.
The Russian language has many ways of presenting the narration. Direct speech sentences are one of them. Most often they are used in literary texts and in newspaper articles, where verbatim transmission of someone's statements is required.
Without the transmission of human thoughts and words, fiction would only be descriptive and unlikely to be successful with readers. Most of all they are interested in other people's thoughts and feelings that cause a positive or negative response in consciousness. It is this that “binds” the reader to the work and defines it as liked or not.
Another technique used in Russian literature and everyday life is indirect speech.
What is indirect speech?
It is easy to remember the difference between direct speech and indirect speech. There is no literal transmission of other people's words and intonation. These are complex sentences with subordinate and principal parts combined with conjunctions, pronouns, or “li” particles.
Sentences with direct and indirect speech in the Russian language convey other people's words, but they sound differently. For example:
The structure of indirect offers
Like all complex sentences, indirect sentences consist of the main one and one or more subordinates:
- The doctor warned that today the procedure will begin an hour earlier, so you need to get up earlier.
Indirect speech can also be transmitted in a simple sentence with the help of secondary members, for example:
- The doctor warned about the start of the procedure one hour earlier.
In this example, the words of the doctor are transmitted without the construction of a complex sentence, but their meaning is conveyed correctly.
An important indicator when changing direct speech to an indirect one is that in a complex sentence from the main part to the secondary part one can always ask the question:
- The doctor warned (about what?) That today the procedures will begin an hour earlier.
For the construction of indirect speech using conjunctions and pronouns. This is the difference of sentence with direct and indirect speech.
Unions and allied words for the transfer of other people's words
In that case, if the indirect speech is of a narrative character, the “what” union is used:
- Mom said it's better to take an umbrella.
When an offer of incentive nature, use the union "to":
- Grandma told me to wash the dishes.
When creating an interrogative indirect sentence, the same pronouns are preserved as interrogative sentences with direct speech:
- I asked a passerby: "How do I get to Deribasovskaya?"
- I asked a passerby how to get to Deribasovskaya.
If there are no interrogative pronouns in direct speech, in the sentence with indirect speech the “Li” particle is used:
- I asked: "Will you eat borscht?"
- I asked if he would eat up the soup.
When transmitting other words in indirect speech is not transmitted intonation of the speaker.
To better understand the difference, you should make an analysis of the sentence with direct speech, indirect and improperly direct.
The main difference in non-self-direct speech is the transmission of other people's emotions through their words.
Another type of transmission of someone else's speech in literature is a dialogue. It is used to transmit the words of several participants, with remarks written from a new line and a dash are highlighted:
“Why wasn't you in class?”
“I went to the doctor,” answered the student.
The dialogue is used in fiction in works with a large number of characters.