Rosary is an essential attribute of many religious traditions. At a minimum, Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim rosaries are distinguished. In the same row with them are the Christian ones. The latter, in turn, are subdivided into several types, in accordance with the confessional features and scheme of the device. In this article, we will consider Orthodox beads as the subject most widely distributed within the Russian-speaking world.
Purpose of the beads
The first thing to be said about is that the common practice of every religion is prayer. Some texts are usually pronounced many times in a row, which requires a certain counting system. It is this role that special beads, called rosaries, perform: it is easy to track the number of prayers spoken by handing them over in their hands. In fact, this is the only proper religious purpose of this subject. And the Orthodox beads are no exception.
Sometimes, however, some of their kinds are used as a religious decoration. For example, it often happens in Catholic parishes, where rosaries hang on statues of saints, especially the Virgin Mary. In addition, in addition to its main function, special beads for prayer are one of the attributes of the monastic vestments.
Orthodox beads: classification
As for the beads, which are peculiar to the purely Eastern Christian tradition, at present there are two kinds. The first can be called a native Orthodox, since it is the most ancient. This type of rosary is called a leper. However, at present they are preserved mainly by the Old Believers, whereas in the official Orthodoxy they play the role of an outdated relic.
The second type has a more familiar look, similar to beads, strung on a string in a certain sequence. These are the most popular Orthodox beads, which are used not only by believers, but also by mundane people, for example, as a suspension on the mirror of their car. There is even a brand of wine, to the label of which such beads are fastened as an element of design.
Leaves are, as already mentioned, the most ancient Orthodox beads used in the Russian Orthodox tradition. They occur from the so-called verwitz - rope with knots, widespread in Byzantium and performing the same role of the calculation of prayers.
The word "swagger" means "ladder" - it means a ladder to heaven, to God. This is not accidental. Orthodox rosaries in the form of a fly-on really look like a ladder, since they have the appearance of not a bead, but a leather belt, along the whole length of which some kind of steps are made-wide loops called the bean-balls. The location of the latter is based on a rather complex system. The ends of the sweeps are stitched in a special way by fastened triangles, called cusps. And inside the bobs is a thick paper roll. According to the rules, these words were written with the words of prayers, but now this tradition is rarely supported.
This type of rosaries is also divided into several types. Thus, men's, women's and children's sweaters are distinguished. Also there are everyday, funeral, marriage and festive options.
As has already been said, the sweatshirts are the orthodox rosaries that have lost their significance today. Their photo is located below.
Structure of the sweeps
Device Lastovo to remember quite difficult. This is compounded by the fact that there are several types. The classic version is a circle of one hundred and nine bobokov. It starts with four lepestkov made in "herringbone". They symbolize the Trinity, and their number – the number of evangelists. Next on the tape lestovki three the jacket and the empty lot. Behind him are twelve small steps, followed by one big. Next thirty eight small bobochko and again a great one. Followed by another cycle of thirty-three steps of small items plus one large. Then there are seventeen bobokov small, empty lot again and finally again three the jacket.
How to use levies
So, the sweatshirts are Orthodox. How to use them - practically no one knows. Although in fact it is quite simple, if their structure is well mastered, which is adapted to the needs of the Old Believers' services. With their help determine when, how many and which bow, what prayers to utter and so on. In addition, a number of private prayer rules have been adapted to the succession of steps of the hatchery, consisting mainly of brief recurring references to Jesus Christ, the Mother of God, angels and saints.
Rosary, which is widespread in modern Orthodoxy, represented in Russia mainly by the Moscow Patriarchate, in comparison with lekstikami, are simpler and laconic. Their origin, however, is Western, that is, Catholic, and is associated, according to legend, with the name of St. Dominic. The latter, if you believe the legends, was awarded the vision of the Mother of God, who handed him the rosary and ordered them to read their prayers for the sake of the triumph of Catholicism over the heretics.
Historical evidence also suggests that the rosary, namely the so-called rosary, originated from the tradition of daily reading of one hundred and fifty psalms, which the illiterate peasants replaced with the prayers "Our Father" and "Rejoice, Mary". This practice also began to be called a rosary. By the 14th century, the rosaries had found a modern division into dozens and in this form spread to Russia in the 19th century. This event is associated with the name of St. Seraphim of Sarov. The fact is that, being a great admirer of the Virgin Mary, he introduced in the wards of his communities the practice of reading the rosary in its orthodox form, which was called the Theotokos rule. The reading scheme remained the same, only the words of Latin prayers were replaced by Church Slavonic equivalents.
Originally from this innovation there was a new type of sweatshirt called the Virgin and adapted to the reading of the Mother of God rule. However, very soon they were replaced by traditional western beads with a pendant in the form of a cross, known today as Orthodox rosary beads.
Structure of the rosary
Since this type of rosary is intended primarily for reading the Bogorodichnogo rule, which is a tracing paper from the Catholic rosary, their structure is similar to the Western prototype. They represent a bundle consisting of fifty small beads, separated through every ten of one large. Such are the classic orthodox beads. The number of beads can be different, for example, one hundred and one hundred and fifty. To the place of a bunch of thread ends is attached a small cross, which according to the Russian tradition is often completed with a brush.
There is another option, which differs not in structure, but in production method. The attribute is weaved from one thread, where the role of beads is played by knots. Thus, they are more like a dough - Byzantine medieval beads. Orthodox with their own hands often weave such, and then give each other. This especially applies to monks.
How to use beads
We found out that at the present time the rosary can be called in full not otherwise than the rosary Orthodox. How to use them in the Russian tradition, tells the rules of the Mother of God rule. According to him, the usual introductory prayers are read on the cross - "Heavenly King", etc., followed by the "Symbol of Faith". Then, on the ten little beads, "Theotokos, Devos" is pronounced, and on the large - "Our Father". So you should read the whole range of rosaries. Complete with this is the cycle of one hundred and fifty prayers to the Theotokos, which is why the Orthodox beads can have a different number of dozens - from one to fifteen, and even more.
viktor buligin January 27, 2016, 0:43