Spelling numerals - one of the most difficult themes of spelling. Problems often arise with case endings, as well as with the definition of the discharge of this part of speech. Therefore, before talking about spelling norms, it is worth giving the concept of the name of the numerals.
Numeral as part of speech
Numeral is a special part of speech, an independent character, which indicates the order of counting of objects, and also indicates their number. Depending on the grammatical function, the numerals are delineated to ordinal and quantitative, respectively. The first question is "how much?", To the second - "what is the score?".
Depending on their content, the numerals are divided into groups:
- Consisting of a single root, are called simple: five, one, third, hundredth.
- Consisting of two roots, they are called compound: twelve, sixty, seventieth, fifteenth.
- Those that consist of several words are called complex: twenty-one, one hundred fifty-four, ninety-second, one thousand nine hundred ninety-second.
Also there are collective and fractional numerals in the Russian language. Their spelling is regulated by rules, which we will consider below. The first - these are those that indicate a certain amount as a whole: five, four. The second is a fraction, decimal or ordinary, written in words: five sixths, two eleven hundredths.
Spelling of simple numerals
First, let's analyze the spelling of numerals simple. Despite their name, they occasionally cause spelling difficulties.
Numerical million and billion should be written with a double "l" in the middle: a millionth resident, a billion-dollar deal.
Simple numbers from five to ten are written with a soft sign on the end: five cups, six petals, seven people.
Also, remember the equal existence of zero and zero forms. The latter, as a rule, is used in the scientific style of speech.
Spelling of complex numerals
Now let's analyze the complex numerals in Russian. Their spelling is subject to the following rules:
- Eleven is spelled with double "n", also do not forget about the soft sign on the end.
- Complex numbers from eleven to twenty, as well as thirty, should be written with a soft sign at the end: twenty people, fifteen sweets.
- However, a soft sign is not needed in the middle of the numerals of fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen and nineteen.
- Numbers from 50 to 80, as well as from 500 to 900, are written with a soft sign in the middle: fifty toilers, seventy apartments; six hundred kilograms, nine hundred years.
- Ordinal numerals, the second part of which are the words "thousandth, millionth, billionth", should be written together: twenty thousandth run, fifty millionth resident, two billionth molecule.
Spelling of compound and fractional numerals
The spelling of the numeral compound, consisting of several words, is easy to remember. They are written separately. However, they can include both simple and complex numerals.
For example: one hundred sixty-six (one hundred is simple, sixty is complicated, it is written with a soft sign in the middle, six is simple, at the end a soft sign is needed). Thousand eleven (one thousand is simple, eleven is complex, in the middle one should use double "n").
The spelling of the numerals is reduced to the following rule: they are written separately, as well as compound ones: zero point fifteen hundredth, three second, one whole five ninth.
The grammatical norms and spelling of numerals are inextricably linked. The rule is separate for each category. Thus, the quantitative numerals 5-20, 30 have the same endings as the nouns of the first declension (for example, bone): six, six; twenty, about twenty. But the words denoting the number 40, 90, 100, have only two grammatical forms: in the nominative and accusative cases forty, ninety, one hundred, in all others - forty, ninety, hundred.
You should pay attention to the spelling of the endings of the numeral quantitative compound: you must change each word. Let's consider an example: 645 + 128 = 773. To six hundred forty five to add one hundred and twenty eight will turn out seven hundred and seventy-three.
Also for an example we will decline the answer:
- Seven hundred and seventy-three - nominative.
- Seven hundred and seventy-three is the genitive case.
- Seventy-seventy-three is the dative case.
- Seven hundred and seventy-three is the accusative case.
- Seventy-seventy-three - instrumental.
- About seven hundred and seventy-three - prepositional case.
The deviation of the numerals, indicating the order of the account, is much simpler: it is necessary to change only the last word, and as an adjective:
- Seventy-seventy-third - nominative.
- Seventy-seventy-third is the genitive case.
- Seventy-seventy-third is the dative case.
- Seventy-seventy-third (-his for animate)-accusative case.
- Seventy-seventy-third - instrumental.
- About seven hundred and seventy-third - prepositional case.