Spelling of numerals is one of the most difficult spelling topics. Problems often arise with case endings, as well as with the definition of the discharge of a given part of speech. Therefore, before talking about the spelling norms, it is worthwhile to give the concept of the name of the numeral.
Numeral as part of speech
A numeral is a special part of speech, of an independent character, which designates the order in which objects are counted, and also indicates their number. Depending on the grammatical function, numerals are differentiated into ordinal and quantitative, respectively. To the first one, the question “how much?” Is asked, to the second one - “what is the account?”.
Depending on their content, numerals are divided into groups:
- Consisting of one root, are called simple: five, one, third, hundredth.
- Consisting of two roots, called compound: twelve, sixty, seventieth, fifteenth.
- Those that consist of several words are called complex: twenty-one, one hundred fifty-four, ninety-second, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-second.
There are also collective and fractional numbers in Russian. Their spelling is governed by the rules, which we consider below. The first are those that indicate a certain amount as a whole: five, four of them. The second are a fraction, decimal or ordinary, written with the words: five sixths, two point eleven hundredths.
Spelling of simple numerals
To begin with, let’s analyze the spelling of simple numerals. Despite their name, they sometimes cause spelling difficulties.
The numbers million and billion should be written with a double “l” in the middle: millionth, billionth transaction.
Simple numerals from five to ten are written with a soft sign on the end: five cups, six petals, seven people.
You should also remember about the equal existence of the forms zero and zero. The latter, as a rule, is used in the scientific style of speech.
Spelling complex numbers
Now we will analyze complex numbers in Russian. Their spelling is subject to the following rules:
- Eleven is written with a double “n”, also do not forget about the soft sign on the end.
- Complex numbers from eleven to twenty, as well as thirty, should be written with a soft sign at the end: twenty people, fifteen candies.
- However, a soft sign is not needed in the middle of the numerals fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen and nineteen.
- Numbers from 50 to 80, as well as from 500 to 900, are written with a soft sign in the middle: fifty workers, seventy apartments; six hundred pounds, nine hundred years.
- Ordinal numerals, the second part of which are the words “thousandth, millionth, billionth”, should be written together: a twenty thousandth mileage, a fifty millionth inhabitant, a two billionth molecule
Spelling compound and fractional numbers
The spelling of numerals composed of several words is easy to remember. They are written separately. However, they may include both simple and complex numbers.
For example: one hundred and sixty-six (one hundred is simple, sixty is complex, it is written with a soft sign in the middle, six is simple, a soft sign is needed at the end). Thousand and eleven (one thousand - simple, eleven - difficult, in the middle should be used double “n”).
The spelling of numerals fractional boils down to the following rule: they are written separately, as well as compound ones: zero point fifteen, three second, one point five ninth.
The grammatical norms and spelling of numerals are inseparably linked. Rule separately for each category. Thus, the cardinal numbers 5–20, 30 have the same endings as the nouns of the first declination (for example, bone): six, about six; twenty, about twenty. But the words denoting the number 40, 90, 100, have only two grammatical forms: in the nominative and accusative cases forty, ninety, one hundred, in all others - forty, ninety, one hundred.
Attention should be paid to the spelling of the endings of numeral quantitative components: it is necessary to change each word. Let us examine an example: 645 + 128 = 773. To the six hundred and forty-five, one hundred and twenty-eight, you get seven hundred and seventy-three.
Also, for example, let's decline the answer:
- Seven hundred seventy three - nominative case.
- Seven hundred and seventy-three - genitive.
- Seven hundred and seventy-three - dative.
- Seven hundred and seventy-three - accusative.
- Seven hundred and seventy three - the instrumental case.
- About seven hundred and seventy-three - prepositional.
The declination of numerals, denoting the order of the account, is much simpler: it is necessary to change only the last word, moreover, as an adjective:
- Seven hundred seventy third - nominative case.
- Seven hundred seventy third - genitive.
- Seven hundred and seventy-third - dative case.
- Seven hundred and seventy third (- it is for the animate) - accusative.
- Seven hundred and seventy-third - the instrumental case.
- About seven hundred and seventy-third - the prepositional case.