“Not with different parts of speech ”is one of the topics in the Russian language that always causes difficulties. And the point here is not so much the complexity of the topic itself, but in the amount of information that needs to be remembered: the rules used for the verb are not always suitable for the noun, but trying to determine the fluent and separate spelling of the participle by analogy with the verb is generally one of the worst mistakes! What to do to be confident in their knowledge and not to be mistaken?
Particle and prefix
First you need to clearly distinguish the particlenot and prefixnot-. The particle is always written separately, the prefix is allocated with the appropriate sign when morphemic parsing of the word and is its structural part. Based on this, a general rule is built:not with different parts of speech is written together, if the given word is withoutnot just not used (hate, bad weather, invincible, unexpected etc.). To find such words in the text is not difficult at all, therefore difficulties do not usually arise with them.
Spelling with nouns, adjectives and adverbs
Nouns, adjectives and adverbs ending in-about (cold fast ). Spelling particlesnot with different parts of speech in this case completely and completely coincides.
So,not written separately:
- If there is an opposition with the unionbut (not hot, but cold; not a friend, but an enemy; not fresh, but hard ).
- With wordsfar from it (far from caution; not at all cold; far from easy ).
- With double negative (no one is new; nobody interesting news ).
- When denying two signs in a row (not high and not low ).
Fused writingnot- with different parts of speech is possible in two cases:
- If you can pick up a synonym withoutnot- (a foe is an enemy, a close - close, a little - a little ).
- If the union is usedbut in combinations likeshallow but fast. Unionbut is adversary, however unlike the unionbut it may not mean opposition, but comparison of non-exclusive signs.
We continue to study the spelling of particlesnot with different parts of speech. The rule concerning the sacrament can be safely called one of the most controversial, because it is usually with him that the greatest difficulties arise. But let's try to figure it out.
Slitnonot- with the participle is written in such cases:
- If there is no dependent word (wet grass ; outstanding task ).
- If there is no opposition (unread book ; unpublished manuscript ).
- With adverbs of measure and degreevery, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very (extremely rash decision ; almost undisturbed order ).
- If the participle is derived from the verb with the prefixinadequate (misunderstood ).
With separate writingnot also easy to understand:
- If there is a dependent word (not written (how?) essay in time; not coming (when?) student today ).
- If there is an opposition (not invented, but the real plot ).
- If the participle has a short form (the story is not invented, the book is not read ).
There are several situations in which only split writing is possible.not with different parts of speech. Some of them are peculiar rules and memorized by children in elementary school, while others practically do not occur.
- With words that are written with a hyphen (not friendly, not southeast ).
- With adjectives comparatively (no better no worse ).
- With relative, possessive adjectives, as well as adjectives of taste and color (not winter; not mom's; not black ).
- With numerals (not one, not second ).
- With verbs (didn't go, couldn't ).
- With participles (unable without thinking ).
- With official words: prepositions and particles (not only not with him not because of him ).
In addition to the fourth point: it is very important not to confuse the participle and the adjective, because in the case of a short adjective the spellingnot will obey other rules. Compare:the girl is talented and educated andgroup formed. In the first case, the fact that the wordeducated is an adjective, indicates the standing next to the word of the same part of speech, moreover, it is clear from the meaning that this is not a participle (the girl was not formed, but she is intelligent). In the second situation, it is clear that someone created the group, formed it, i.e. itformed by. Consequently, due to different spellingnot different parts of speech, which include homonymous words.
Speaking of spellingnot with different parts of speech, let’s dwell on personal and negative pronouns. In the case of them, everything is very simple: if there is a preposition, it is written separately (no one ), but if it is not there, it’s all together (once ).
Ned andnot until
One of the most difficult points of this rule is the spelling of verbs with the prefixinadequate and verbs with particlenot and prefixbefore-. I mean words liketo eat less anddon't eat up. which at first glance are absolutely identical, but from the point of view of grammar should be written in different ways.
Prefixinadequate indicates a finished action, the result of which is not normal (some linguists say that any word with this prefix denotes something bad):to undernourish (there is little), to underestimate (to appreciate not enough), to keep back (to hide the truth).
In turn, the particle and the prefix characterize the interrupted action:do not finish (do not have time to finish the meal), do not finish (do not finish it), do not swim (do not finish swimming) .
At first glance, everything is not so difficult, but sometimes there are situations when it is not easy to choose between two options.
Another controversial topic is “Spelling.not andneither with different parts of speech. ” The benefit here is not so many nuances, so it will be easy to understand the rules.
Particlenot used to:
- Negative expressions (didn't understand not mine ).
- Under the stress of pronouns (to someone who ).
Then as a particleneither :
- Enhances denial (there was no light or house )
- Used under the stress of pronouns (nikto )
- Used in complex sentences to reinforce the statement (wherever we go, we were greeted everywhere happily ).
In principle, everything is not so difficult, some tasks of such a plan are performed exclusively at the level of intuition, but still knowledge of the theory can greatly facilitate the task.
In order to fix the rule, it is better to repeat all the material. It is important to understand what combinations are formed withnot different parts of speech. The table will help you remember all the most important.