“Not with different parts of speech "is one of the topics in Russian that always causes difficulties. And the point here is not so much in the complexity of the topic itself, as in the amount of information that you need to remember: for a noun the rules used for a verb are not always appropriate, but to try to determine the conjoint and separate writing of a participle by analogy with a verb is generally one of the grossest mistakes! What can we do to be confident in our knowledge and not to be mistaken?
Particle and attachment
First, you need to clearly delimit a particlenot and a prefixnot-. The particle is always written separately, the prefix is also allocated with the appropriate sign for the morphemic analysis of the word and is its structural part. On the basis of this a general rule is built:not with different parts of speech is written together, if the given word withoutnot simply not used (to hate, bad weather, invincible, unexpected etc.). To find such words in the text is by no means difficult, therefore, difficulties usually do not arise with them.
Spelling with nouns, adjectives and adverbs
In one large group, nouns, adjectives and adverbs that end in-about (cold, fast ). Spelling of particlesnot with different parts of speech in this case entirely and completely.
So,not is written separately:
- If there is an opposition with the uniona (not hot, but cold; not a friend, but an enemy; not fresh, but stale ).
- With wordsfar from it (by no means cautious; not cold at all; far from easy ).
- With double negation (for no one is new; no one is interesting news ).
- If you deny two signs in a row (is not high and not low ).
Merge Writingnot- with different parts of speech is possible in two cases:
- If you can choose a synonym withoutnot- (enemy - the enemy, close - close, a little - a little ).
- If an alliance is usedbut in combinations likeshallow, but fast. Unionbut is adversive, but unlike the uniona it can mean not an opposition, but a comparison of not mutually exclusive attributes.
We continue to study the spelling of particlesnot with different parts of speech. The rule concerning the sacrament can be safely called one of the most controversial, because it is with him that usually the greatest difficulties arise. But let's try to figure it out.
Mergenot- with communion is written in such cases:
- If there is no dependent word (non-dried grass ; unfulfilled task ).
- If there is no opposition (unread book ; unreleased manuscript ).
- With adverbs of measure and degreevery, very, absolutely, almost, absolutely, extremely, absolutely, very (extremely ill-considered decision ; almost undisturbed order ).
- If the participle is formed from a verb with a prefixunder- (misunderstood ).
With separate spellingnot too easy to understand:
- If there is a dependent word (not written (how?) in time composition; not come (when?) today a student ).
- If there is an opposition (not invented, but a real plot ).
- If the participle has a short form (history is not invented, the book is not read ).
There are several situations in which only sporadic writing is possiblenot with different parts of speech. Some of them are peculiar rules and are learned by children in primary school, while others are practically not met.
- With words that are written through a hyphen (not comradely, not southeastern ).
- With adjectives in a comparative degree (not better, not worse ).
- With relative, possessive adjectives, as well as adjectives of taste and color (not winter; not my mother's; not black ).
- With numerals (not one, not the second ).
- With verbs (did not go, could not ).
- With gerunds (not knowing how, without thinking ).
- With official words: prepositions and particles (not only, not with him, not because of him ).
In addition to the fourth point: it is very important not to confuse the sacrament and the adjective, because in the case of a short adjective spellingnot will obey other rules. Compare:the girl is talented and educated andgroup formed. In the first case, the wordeducated is an adjective, indicates the next word of the same part of the speech, besides, by the meaning it is clear that this is not a gerund (the girl was not formed, but she is smart). In the second situation, it can be seen that someone created the group, formed, ie, itis formed. Hence, different spelling is causednot different parts of speech, which include homonymous words.
Arguing about spellingnot with different parts of speech, we will dwell on personal and negative pronouns. In the case of them, everything is very simple: if there is an excuse, it is spelled separately (no one with whom ), if it does not exist, it is merged (once ).
Under- andnot up to
One of the most difficult points of this rule is the spelling of verbs with a prefixunder- and verbs with a particlenot and a prefixbefore-. These are words likeundernourish andnot eat up. which at first glance are absolutely identical, but from the point of view of grammar, they have to be written differently.
Consoleunder- indicates a complete action, the result of which does not correspond to the norm (some linguists say that any word with this prefix indicates something bad):malnutrition (there is little), underestimate (not appreciate highly), not talk (hide the truth).
In turn, the particle and the prefix characterize the interrupted action:not finish (do not have time to finish the meal), do not finish (do not finish the speech), not swim (do not finish swimming) .
At first glance, everything is not so difficult, but sometimes there are situations when it is not easy to choose between the two options.
Another controversial topic is "Spellingnot andnor with different parts of speech. " The benefit here is not so much nuance, so it will be easy to understand the rules.
Particlenot is used for:
- Expressions of negation (did not understand, not mine ).
- Under stress in pronouns (but no one ).
Then as a particlenor :
- Strengthens the negation (there was no light, no home )
- It is not used under stress in pronouns (nikogda )
- Used in complex sentences to strengthen the assertion (wherever we go, we were welcomed everywhere ).
In principle, everything is not so difficult, some tasks of such a plan are performed exclusively at the level of intuition, but still the knowledge of the theory can greatly facilitate the task.
In order to consolidate the rule, it is better to repeat all the material. It is important to understand what combinations are formed withnot different parts of speech. The table will help to remember the most important thing.