Over the years of their studies, students perform research works at various levels: term papers, dissertations, essays. The simplest form in terms of its shape and volume is the latter. Work on the essay is often not given due attention. This happens due to the fact that in terms of its volume and level, it is significantly inferior to the thesis and term papers. Nevertheless, the abstract is an independent, albeit small, study. So, what are the rules for writing an essay? What do you need to know when doing this research?

What is the abstract?

First we turn to the etymology. There are several translation options from different languages. C Latin root of the word "fere" is translated as "approximately." In combination with the prefix "re", meaning repetitive, renewing action, the abstract is a generalized, somewhat approximate presentation of any work. As a latter, there may be a scientific article, one book or several sources on a specific topic.

Rules for writing an essay in accordance with GOST: sample

Translated from the German "referieren" means a report or message. The abstract is intended to acquaint with the results of scientific work, a new direction or discovery in any field of knowledge.

Based on the applicability in the learning process at the university, the most appropriate would be such a value as a report on a given topic, including generalizing work with several sources. When performing this type of research, three skills are developed:

  • work with literature;
  • analysis of the selected material;
  • expression of own opinion on the chosen topic.

Type of research

In the process of working on the essay, the student conducts a small, but research. Since there is a consideration of different opinions, sources, familiarity with different points of view on a particular issue. Thus, a student, comparing and summarizing the material, gets a new result and, importantly, valuable research experience.

To conduct such a study and design it in the appropriate form, you need to know the rules for writing an essay. There may be several options.

  1. Guidelines that can be taken at the department, teaching the studied discipline.
  2. If there are none, the second option is possible - use the rules established by GOST for writing works of this type. The latter contains comprehensive design information.

Rules for writing an essay in accordance with GOST

Consider the basic requirements for such work. They are contained in the standard establishing the structure of the abstract and the basic rules for its design - GOST 7.32-2001. Here are collected information about how the report should appear, which is the result of a research work.

In addition to this standard, another one is used - GOST 7.1–2003, which establishes general requirements for the design of a bibliographic description. It contains the basic rules for compiling bibliographic records. Let us consider in more detail the rules for writing an essay.

General requirements

They relate to the volume and structure of the abstract. The first should be no more than thirty pages of printed text and run on paper of the appropriate format. For the essay is suitable A4. Text is printed on only one side of the page.

Technical requirements for registration

They are contained in the guidelines and GOST and, as a rule, coincide. Technical points concern the following:

  1. Font, which made the work. As a rule, this is Times New Roman. Its size is not more than 14, but sometimes 12 is also allowed.
  2. Line spacing of the abstract. It is usually one and a half.
  3. The size of the indents from the edge on the left side is at least 30 millimeters, all the rest are 20.
  4. The format of the text, aligned to the width.
  5. The red line is the same for the entire document and ranges from 1 to 1.25 millimeters.
  6. Parts of the abstract listed in the table of contents or the table of contents. They must begin on a new page, stand out in bold or capital letters of the same size and centered. At the end of the header in any case do not put point and must not contain hyphenation of words. The text should follow double-spaced after the title.
  7. Numbering pages must be performed in Arabic numerals and be placed in the upper right corner. It begins with a sheet on which the first structural element of the abstract (introduction). Previous two pages: title and table of contents (plan contents) are not numbered, but certainly considered.

These are the basic rules for writing an essay, but there are still a number of different subtleties related to the content aspect.

What is written in the introduction?

Here you need to adhere to a certain structure, which includes:

  • significance and relevance of the chosen topic of the abstract;
  • the purpose and objectives of the study;
  • a small review of the literature analyzed in the work;
  • structure of the abstract.

In addition to these points, the head may include others. Despite the fact that the essay begins with this part, work on it should be carried out at the end of the study, since it contains information that has a generalizing character.

Content: Basic Requirements

Here, too, there are a number of subtleties that accompany this kind of research, like the abstract. The rules of writing and design of the main task of the student here are the disclosure of the research topic. This work is carried out in the main part of the abstract, which, as a rule, includes three sections or chapters.

The first deals with the theoretical foundations of a phenomenon or process under investigation. The basic concepts are presented and their definitions are analyzed. Also here you can consider the history of the development of the object.

The second section is devoted to analytical work. Here you can provide statistics, graphs showing the dynamics of processes, and other similar information.

The third section provides suggestions for improving the state of the object. Possible prospects for its development are outlined.

The abstract concludes. Here conclusions are drawn on the basis of all that has been investigated in the work. The structure of this element of the abstract should be in logical unity with the introduction and the main part. In other words, the tasks that were set in the introduction and were considered in the relevant sections should be resolved and substantiated in the conclusion. Structurally, it begins with a general conclusion according to the purpose of the abstract, and further conclusions are given for each task set at the beginning of the work.

The last element is a list of references. Here it is important to correctly compile and display bibliographic descriptions of sources in accordance with GOST. Their numbering in the list should correspond to their numbers or references in the text of the work. The order of arrangement can be both in alphabetical order, and as far as a particular work is mentioned in the text of the abstract. Here it is important to remember that the introduction and conclusion should not contain references and quotes.

Design example

Paraphrasing the well-known proverb, we note that it is better to see what the abstract should look like than to read a lot about it. Sometimes not quite clear the rules of writing an essay. The sample will help clarify the situation. Immediately, we note that the content of this work will depend on the subject chosen by the student.

The title page, an example of which is given below, includes all the basic data. At the same time, it should be remembered that a particular university can establish additional conditions. In order to get a positive assessment for the essay, you must certainly read them or use the type title. Everything related to the design technique, demonstrate the rules of writing an essay.


Russian Pedagogical University

Department of Social and Political Sciences

The topic “Student's legal culture: the role of the media in its formation and development”

Completed: SI Ivanov,

student group SP

Checked: Petrov GF,

Nizhny Novgorod 2015


1.1. The concept of legal culture in science

1.2. Legal culture, consciousness and socialization of young people


2.1. The main factors influencing the formation of the modern legal culture of the student

2.2. The role of the media in shaping the student's legal culture and consciousness


2.1. The impact of Internet technologies on the nature of the relationship of the student audience and the media

2.2. Formation and development of new models of interaction between students and the media


The relevance of the chosen research topic is due to the role that the media today plays in shaping the legal culture of students. Evaluation of this effect allows you to identify both positive and negative aspects of this interaction.

The purpose of the essay is to study the legal culture of students and find out what role the mass media plays in its formation. Achieving the goal is possible with the implementation of the following tasks:

  • studying the theoretical foundations of legal culture;
  • consideration of its connection with legal consciousness and socialization;
  • studying the role of the media in shaping the student’s legal culture and consciousness.


1.1. The concept of legal culture in science

Approaches to the understanding of legal culture in modern science are based on studies conducted by famous scientists: theorists and practitioners.


2.1. The main factors influencing the formation of the modern legal culture of the student

Based on the theoretical fundamental research conducted in the first section, we note that among the main factors influencing the formation of the legal culture of students, it is necessary to name the mass media. It is this “fourth power” that is able to exert an imperceptible and permanent influence on the consciousness of the youth, its aspirations, goals, and fundamental attitudes.


3.1. The impact of Internet technologies on the nature of the relationship of the student audience and the media

In the previous sections, the main factors influencing the formation of a modern legal culture of a student were examined and highlighted. Among them were also called Internet technologies. In order to assess the impact of the latter on the nature of the relationship between students and the media, one should refer to the results of the studies conducted.

So, in the essay, a study was conducted of the legal culture of students and clarified the role of the media in its formation. It has been established that modern media not only influence the minds of students, but are able to form with them a certain attitude towards those processes and phenomena that occur in modern Russian society.


1. Sultanov R.M. Student Movement in Russia / R. M. Sultanov // Socio-political encyclopedia in 3 tons. - M. 2010. - V. 2. - p. 797- 800.

2. Aspects of legal competence / D.V. Gambikov // Profession - journalist: challenges of the XXI century. Collection of materials of the Intern. scientific conf. "Journalism 2014". - M. Faculty of Journalism MGIMO, 2014. - p. 259-267.

In the example given above, the rules for writing an essay in accordance with GOST are observed. The sample contains all the elements necessary for the student to write the research work correctly and in accordance with the standards.