During the years of their studies, students perform research at various levels: course, diploma, essays. The simplest form in terms of its shape and volume is the latter. The work on the abstract is often not given due attention. This is due to the fact that in terms of volume and level, it is significantly inferior to the degree and course work. Nevertheless, the abstract is an independent, albeit small, study. So, what are the rules of writing an essay? What do you need to know when doing this research?

What is an abstract?

Let's start with etymology. There are several variants of translation from different languages. From the Latin root of the word "fere" is translated as "approximately". In conjunction with the prefix "re", meaning a repetitive, renewable action, the abstract is a generalized, somewhat approximate statement of some kind of work. As the last one can be a scientific article, one book or several sources on a certain topic.

Rules for writing essays in accordance with GOST: sample

In German, "referieren" means a report or a message. The abstract is intended to introduce the results of scientific work, a new direction or discovery in any field of knowledge.

Proceeding from the applicability in the process of studying at a university, the most appropriate is the importance of a report on a given topic, including a generalization of work with several sources. With this type of research, three skills develop:

  • work with literature;
  • analysis of the selected material;
  • expression of one's own opinion on the chosen topic.

Type of scientific research

In the process of working on the abstract, the student conducts a small, but study. Since here there is a consideration of different opinions, sources, acquaintance with different points of view on this or that question. Thus, the student, when comparing and summarizing the material, receives a new result and, importantly, a valuable research experience.

To conduct such a study and design it in the appropriate form, you need to know the rules for writing the essay. There may be several options.

  1. Methodical instructions that can be taken at the department that teaches the discipline under study.
  2. If there are none, a second option is possible - use the rules established by GOST to write works of this kind. The latter contains exhaustive information on design.

The rules of writing essays in accordance with GOST

Let's consider the basic requirements shown to similar works. They are contained in the standard that establishes the structure of the abstract and the basic rules for its design, GOST 7.32-2001. Here you can find information on how the report should look like, which is the result of research work.

In addition to this standard, another one is used - GOST 7.1-2003, which establishes general requirements for the design of a bibliographic description. Here are the basic rules for compiling a bibliographic record. Let's consider the rules of writing an essay in more detail.

General requirements

They relate to the volume and structure of the abstract. The first should be no more than thirty pages of printed text and be executed on paper of the appropriate format. A4 is suitable for the abstract. The text is printed only on one side of the sheet.

Technical requirements for registration

They are contained in the guidelines and in GOST and, as a rule, coincide. Technical points concern the following:

  1. The font that the work is executed. Typically, this is Times New Roman. Its size is no more than 14, but sometimes 12 is allowed.
  2. Interline interval of the abstract. He, as a rule, one and a half.
  3. The size of the indentation from the edge on the left side is not less than 30 millimeters, all the others - 20.
  4. The text format, aligned to the width.
  5. Red line - it is exposed throughout the document equally and is from 1 to 1.25 millimeters.
  6. Parts of the abstract listed in the table of contents or the table of contents. They must begin on a new page, stand out in bold or capital letters of the same size and centered. At the end of the header in any case do not put point and must not contain hyphenation of words. The text should follow double-spaced after the title.
  7. Numbering pages must be performed in Arabic numerals and be placed in the upper right corner. It begins with a sheet on which the first structural element of the abstract (introduction). Previous two pages: title and table of contents (plan contents) are not numbered, but certainly considered.

These are the basic rules for writing an essay, but there are a number of other subtleties related to the content aspect.

What do they write in the introduction?

Here you need to adhere to a certain structure, which includes:

  • the relevance and relevance of the chosen topic of the essay;
  • purpose and objectives of the study;
  • a small review of the literature analyzed in the work;
  • structure of the abstract.

In addition to the above items, the head may include others. Despite the fact that this part of the essay begins, work on it should be carried out at the end of the study, since it contains information that is of a general nature.

Content: basic requirements

Here, too, there are a number of subtleties that accompany this kind of research, like an abstract. The rules of writing and formalizing the student's main task here are the disclosure of the research topic. This work is carried out in the main part of the abstract, which, as a rule, includes three sections or chapters.

The first examines the theoretical basis of the phenomenon or process being studied. Basic concepts are given and their definitions are analyzed. Also here one can consider the history of the development of the object under study.

The second section is devoted to analytical work. Here you can display statistics, graphs that show the dynamics of processes, and other similar information.

The third section contains proposals for improving the state of the object under study. Possible prospects for its development are outlined.

The abstract ends with the conclusion. Here conclusions are drawn on the basis of all that has been investigated in the work. The structure of this abstract element should be in logical unity with the introduction and the main part. In other words, the tasks that were posed in the introduction and were considered in the relevant sections should be resolved and justified in the conclusion. Structurally, it begins with a general inference according to the purpose of the abstract, and then conclusions are given on each task posed at the beginning of the paper.

The last element is the list of used literature. Here it is important to correctly compile and display, in accordance with GOST, bibliographic descriptions of sources. Numbering them in the list should correspond to their numbers or links to the text of the work. The order of location can be either alphabetically or as the work is mentioned in the text of the abstract. Here it is important to remember that the introduction and conclusion should not contain references and citations.

Example of design

To paraphrase a well-known proverb, we note that it is better to see what the abstract should look like than to read a lot about it. Sometimes the rules of writing an essay are not entirely clear. The sample will help to finally clarify the situation. At once we will notice, that meaningfully this work will depend on the subjects chosen by the student.

The cover sheet, the example of which is shown below, includes all the main data. However, it should be remembered that a particular institution can establish additional conditions. In order to get a positive evaluation for the essay, you must certainly familiarize yourself with them or use a standard title. All that concerns the design technique, demonstrate the rules of writing an essay.


Russian Pedagogical University

Department of Social and Political Sciences

The topic "Student's legal culture: the role of the media in its formation and development"

Completed: Ivanov SI,

student group SP

Checked: Petrov GF,

Nizhny Novgorod 2015


1.1. The concept of legal culture in science

1.2. Legal culture, consciousness and socialization of youth


2.1. The main factors that influence the formation of modern student legal culture

2.2. The role of the mass media in the formation of the legal culture and consciousness of the student


2.1. The influence of Internet technologies on the nature of relations between the student audience and the media

2.2. Formation and development of new models of interaction between students and the media


The relevance of the chosen research topic is conditioned by the role played by the media in the formation of the legal culture of students. Evaluation of this influence reveals both positive and negative aspects of such interaction.

The purpose of the essay is to study the legal culture of students and find out what role in its formation is played by the media. Achievement of the goal is possible with the following tasks:

  • study of theoretical bases of legal culture;
  • consideration of its connection with legal consciousness and socialization;
  • studying the role of the media in the formation of the legal culture and consciousness of the student.


1.1. The concept of legal culture in science

Approaches to understanding legal culture in modern science are based on studies conducted by well-known scientists: theorists and practitioners.


2.1. The main factors that influence the formation of modern student legal culture

Relying on the theoretical fundamental research carried out in the first section, we should mention that among the main factors influencing the formation of the legal culture of students, the mass media should be mentioned. It is this "fourth power" that is capable of giving an inconspicuous and constant influence on the consciousness of the youth, its aspirations, goals and fundamental attitudes.


3.1. The influence of Internet technologies on the nature of relations between the student audience and the media

In the previous sections, the main factors influencing the formation of the modern legal culture of the student were examined and highlighted. Among them were also called Internet technologies. In order to assess the influence of the latter on the nature of relations between students and the media, reference should be made to the results of studies conducted.

So, in the abstract, a study was conducted of students' legal culture and the role of the mass media in its formation was clarified. It is established that modern mass media not only influence the consciousness of students, but are able to form in them a certain relation to those processes and phenomena that occur in modern Russian society.


1. Sultanov R.M. Student movement in Russia / RM Sultanov // Socio-political encyclopaedia in 3 volumes - M. 2010. - Т.2. - P. 797- 800.

2. Aspects of legal competence / D.V. Gambikov // Profession - journalist: challenges of the XXI century. Collection of materials of Intern. sci. Conf. "Journalism 2014". - M. Faculty of Journalism, MGIMO, 2014. - P. 259-267.

In the example, which is given above, the rules of writing the abstract according to GOST are observed. The sample contains all the elements necessary for the student to independently write the research paper correctly and in accordance with the standards.