An electron is an elementary particle, which is one of the main units in the structure of a substance. The electron charge is negative. The most accurate measurements were made at the beginning of the twentieth century by Milliken and Ioffe.
The electron charge is minus 1.602176487 (40) * 10 -1 9 Cl.
Through this value, the electric charge of the other smallest particles is measured.
General concept of an electron
In elementary particle physics, it is said that an electron is indivisible and non-structured. It is involved in electromagnetic and gravitational processes, belongs to the lepton group, as well as its antiparticle - the positron. Among other leptons has the lightest weight. If electrons and positrons collide, this leads to their annihilation. Such a pair may arise from gamma-quantum particles.
Before neutrinos were measured, it was the electron that was considered the lightest particle. In quantum mechanics, it is referred to as fermions. Also, the electron has a magnetic moment. If the positron is attributed to it, then the positron is divided as a positively charged particle, and the electron is called negatron, as a particle with a negative charge.
Separate properties of electrons
Electrons belong to the first generation of leptons, with the properties of particles and waves. Each of them is endowed with a quantum state, which is determined by measuring energy, spin orientation, and other parameters. Belonging to fermions in it is revealed through the impossibility of being in the same state of a quantum at the same time of two electrons (according to the Pauli principle).
It is studied in the same way as a quasiparticle in a periodic crystalline potential, in which the effective mass can differ significantly from the mass at rest.
Through the movement of electrons, electric current, magnetism and thermo-emf occur. The charge of an electron in motion forms a magnetic field. However, the external magnetic field deflects the particle from the direct direction. During acceleration, the electron acquires the ability to absorb or emit energy as a photon. Its set consists of electronic atomic shells, the number and position of which determine the chemical properties.
Atomic mass consists mainly of nuclear protons and neutrons, while the mass of the electrons is of the order of 0,06 % of the total atomic weight. The electric Coulomb force is one of the main forces, capable of holding the electron near the nucleus. But when the atoms create molecules and chemical bonds arise, the electrons are redistributed in the new formed space.
The appearance of electrons involved nucleons and hadrons. Isotopes with radioactive properties can emit electrons. Under laboratory conditions, these particles can be studied in special devices, for example, telescopes can detect radiation from them in plasma clouds.
Electron was discovered by German physicists in the nineteenth century, when they studied the cathode properties of rays. Then other scientists began to study it in more detail, bringing it to the rank of a single particle. Radiation and other related physical phenomena were studied.
For example, the group led by Thomson estimated the electron charge and the mass of cathode rays, the relationship of which, as she found out, does not depend on the material source.
Becquerel found out that minerals emit radiation by themselves, and their beta rays are able to deviate through the action of an electric field, and the mass and charge maintained the same ratio as that of the cathode rays.
According to this theory, an atom consists of a nucleus and electrons around it, arranged in the form of a cloud. They are in certain quantized states of energy, the change of which is accompanied by the process of absorption or emission of photons.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, a hypothesis was formulated, according to which material particles have the properties of both the particles themselves and the waves. Light can also manifest itself in the form of a wave (it is called the de Broglie wave) and particles (photons).
As a result, the famous Schrödinger equation was formulated, where the propagation of electron waves was described. This approach was called quantum mechanics. Using it, the electronic states of the energy in the hydrogen atom were calculated.
Fundamental and quantum properties of an electron
A particle exhibits fundamental and quantum properties.
Fundamental include mass (9,109*10 -31 kg), the elementary electric charge (i.e. the minimum portion of the charge). According to the measurements conducted up to now, the electron is not detected any elements that may reveal its substructure. But some scientists are of the opinion that it is a point charged particle. As stated in the beginning of the article, e-electric charge is a -1,602*10 -19 Coulomb.
Being a particle, an electron can simultaneously be a wave. The experiment with two slits confirms the possibility of its simultaneous passage through both of them. This conflicts with the properties of the particle, where each time it is possible to pass through only one slit.
It is believed that electrons have the same physical properties. Therefore, their permutation, from the point of view of quantum mechanics, does not lead to a change in the system state. The wave function of electrons is antisymmetric. Therefore, its solutions vanish when the same electrons fall into the same quantum state (Pauli principle).