The development of the modern state largely depends on the efficiency of production and management of energy resources. Due to the ability to provide long distance transmission, electricity has become the most common type of energy. Among the differences of this energy resource is its ability to generate. In addition, electricity transmission can be carried out at high speed, which simplifies technological solutions for the organization of distribution and consumption networks. Ultimately, this energy is supplied by transport, houses, urban infrastructure is provided, and so on.
Only a few people think about how the electricity, which operates the surrounding equipment and equipment, is being developed. Probably, many will surprise, but energy as object of a matter does not exist - it is no more than force, communicated by one subjects to another. In nature, such processes occur very often. Observing such phenomena, man began to develop ways of purposeful generation and direction of energy for certain needs. At the moment, the transmission and distribution of electricity act as a necessary component of the economic and industrial activities of any state. However, at the first stage, there still remains its production, in which various types of power plants participate.
Thermal power plants
It is one of the oldest and most common power generators. Such stations convert thermal energy, which is formed by the separation of fossil fuels from organic origin. But before switching to a state of electricity, the chemical fuel energy is converted into a mechanical one. Peat, coal, fuel oil, etc. are used as fuel raw materials. Depending on the type of electricity transmission required in a particular region or region, two types of stations can be used. In particular, condensation complexes are designed exclusively for the production of electricity, and CHPs (combined heat and power plants) in addition to electricity also generate heat energy, which is often supplied to industrial enterprises.
Hydroelectric power stations
Such stations are a complex in the form of buildings and equipment, through which the conversion of water energy into electricity.
Hydropower plants include a chain of technical structures that provide an optimal concentration of water flows and create a sufficient head of pressure. In the direct transformation of the energy of the water flow, energy equipment participates. Generally, the receipt and transmission of electricity in hydroelectric power plants occur as a result of the concentration of mechanical force in waterfalls on the exploited sections of dams. In the engine room of the station, hydraulic units operate, automatic systems for monitoring and control, as well as a central dispatching control post.
Nuclear power plants
In nuclear power plants, nuclear energy is transformed. The main generator is a reactor, from which heat is released in the process of fission of heavy element nuclei. This is done by a chain reaction, as a result of which the generation and then the transmission of electricity with its distribution takes place. Compared to traditional thermal power plants, nuclear reactors operate not on organic fuel, but on nuclear energy derived from plutonium, uranium and other elements. It is noteworthy that the world's reserves of nuclear resources in the form of these heavy elements exceed the natural volumes of oil, coal, peat and other organic fuels. This makes the nuclear power industry very promising, although from the point of view of ecological safety such a ratio can hardly be called favorable.
Transmission of electricity through networks
To ensure the transmission of energy, electrical networks are used. This infrastructure is a set of electrical installations that realize the translation and distribution of energy resources from the generating station to the end user. Depending on the purpose, electricity transmission can be performed on different networks. In particular, the following varieties are distinguished:
- Networks with a general purpose. As a rule, they provide household, transport, industrial and agricultural needs.
- The contact network. They can be distinguished as a separate group that serves vehicles, powered by the energy in motion. It can be locomotives, trams, trains etc.
- The mains for the supply of technological objects. In this case, the transmission distance allows you to maintain remote production facilities, as well as various utilities.
- Networks for Autonomous supply. Nourish the energy of Autonomous and mobile entities, among them – the same stations, aircraft, ships, spacecraft, etc.
Electric networks, in turn, are formed by power lines (LEP), which are of two types: AC and DC.
The most common AC line is due to a significant advantage. The matter is that transmission and consumption of electric power due to the step-down transformer are possible on any part of such a line. But there are also disadvantages of AC transmission lines - for example, inductive impedance, which degrades the quality of electricity transmission. Thus, on the way to consumers, the voltage drop in the line is not excluded.
The main advantage of the DC transmission line is precisely in the absence of inductive resistance. In addition, the wires of such lines use less metal, which helps reduce radio interference. In DC lines, transmission and distribution of electricity are carried out with less load on the power system, without requiring a clear synchrony. This achieves both the durability of the transmission lines, and the economy in their content.
Energy sales and consumption
The final stage in the process of servicing electricity is its sales and consumption. Just like all products on the market, energy resources are sold, but in this case, the implementation scheme is more difficult. Calculations are carried out after the transmission of electricity readings for its operation in a residential building, office or production facility was carried out. The sale of energy is carried out by special organizations that carry out deliveries of electricity produced.
In this case, there are two types of marketing. In the first case, it is called energy trading, which assumes the purchase of a resource on the wholesale market from the direct producer. Next, the intermediary organizes work with network companies that deal with retail sales. At this stage, the transmission of data for electricity from final consumers is carried out again with subsequent calculations. In the second variant, a scheme is realized in which the manufacturer initially offers its services in the retail market.
Indications for electricity
The rates for the resource may vary depending on different factors. However, the calculation methods usually the same. Network company or the representatives of energy-producing enterprises take readings of metering devices, and then present to the consumers account. But most often, the transmission of readings of the electricity produced by the users themselves. Data is sent to the offices of the organizations are sent through the online service or dictated by phone. Each supplier also establishes measures for the recovery of debts.
It is important to note that charging of payment amounts can include accounting for planned and actual consumption. After the transfer of data for electricity was carried out, company representatives compose an extract, issue an invoice and collect payments.
Technological and scientific progress demonstrates that the world's energy potential is a key factor in the development of industry and production, while improving the efficiency of transport infrastructure. But for ordinary users, the generation and transmission of electricity over a distance, first of all, ensures personal comfort of existence. For the right to use energy, people are willing to pay a considerable amount for tariffs. This indicates the usefulness and demand for electricity, not only among large industrial enterprises, but also among ordinary inhabitants whose lives are no longer without electrical appliances.