The development of a modern state largely depends on the efficiency of production and energy resources management. With the ability to provide transmission over long distances, electricity has become the most common form of energy. Among the differences of this energy resource is allocated and its ability to generate. In addition, the transmission of electricity can be carried out at high speed, which simplifies technological solutions for the organization of its distribution and consumption networks. In the end, this energy is supplied to transport, houses, urban infrastructure, etc.
Only a few ordinary people think about how the electricity, on which the devices and equipment around them work, is produced. It may surprise many, but energy as a matter object does not exist - it is nothing more than a force communicated by some objects to others. In nature, such processes occur all the time. Observing such phenomena, man began to develop ways to produce and direct energy for specific needs. At the moment, the transmission and distribution of electricity act as a necessary component of the economic and industrial activity of any state. However, the first stage is still its production, in which various types of power plants are involved.
Thermal power plants
This is one of the oldest and most common power generators. Such stations convert thermal energy, which is formed by the release in the process of burning fuel of organic origin. But before turning into a state of electricity, chemical fuel energy is converted into mechanical. Peat, coal, fuel oil, etc. are used as fuel raw materials. Depending on what kind of power transmission is required in a particular region or region, two types of stations can be used. In particular, the condensation complexes are designed exclusively for the production of electricity, and CHPs (combined heat and power plants) in addition to electricity also produce thermal energy, which is often supplied to industrial enterprises.
Such stations are a complex in the form of buildings and equipment, due to which the energy of water is converted into electricity.
Hydroelectric power plants include a chain of technical structures that provide an optimal concentration of water flows and create a sufficient head pressure. Energy equipment is involved in the direct conversion of the energy of the water flow. As a rule, the generation and transmission of electricity at hydroelectric power stations occurs as a result of the concentration of mechanical force in the waterfalls in the exploited parts of the dams. Hydraulic units, automatic systems for monitoring and control, as well as the central post of dispatch control work in the engine department of the station.
Nuclear power plants
Nuclear power is converting nuclear energy. The main generator is the reactor, from which heat is released in the process of nuclear fission of heavy elements. This is carried out by a chain reaction, as a result of which the generation and then transfer of electricity with its distribution takes place. Compared with traditional thermal stations, nuclear reactors do not operate on fossil fuels, but on nuclear energy derived from plutonium, uranium and other elements. It is noteworthy that the world reserves of nuclear resources in the form of the mentioned heavy elements exceed the natural volumes of oil, coal, peat and other representatives of fossil fuels. This makes nuclear power engineering very promising, although from the point of view of environmental safety it is difficult to call such a relationship favorable.
Power transmission over networks
To ensure the transfer of energy used electrical networks. This infrastructure is a complex of electrical installations that implement the transmission and distribution of energy resources from its generating station to the end user. Depending on the destination, the transmission of electricity can be carried out on different networks. In particular, the following varieties are distinguished:
- General purpose networks. As a rule, they provide domestic, transportation, industrial and agricultural needs.
- The contact network. They can be distinguished as a separate group that serves vehicles, powered by the energy in motion. It can be locomotives, trams, trains etc.
- The mains for the supply of technological objects. In this case, the transmission distance allows you to maintain remote production facilities, as well as various utilities.
- Networks for Autonomous supply. Nourish the energy of Autonomous and mobile entities, among them – the same stations, aircraft, ships, spacecraft, etc.
Electrical networks, in turn, are formed by power lines (power lines), which are of two types: alternating current and direct current.
The most common power lines of alternating current due to a significant advantage. The fact is that the transmission and consumption of electricity due to a step-down transformer are possible on any part of such a line. But there are drawbacks to AC power lines - for example, inductive resistance, which degrades the quality of the transmission of electricity. Thus, on the way to consumers, a reduction in the voltage in the line is not excluded.
The main advantage of direct current transmission lines lies precisely in the absence of inductive resistance. In addition, less metal is used in the wires of such lines, which helps reduce radio interference. In DC lines, the transmission and distribution of electricity is carried out with a smaller load on the power systems, without requiring precise synchronization. This is achieved and the durability of power lines, and efficiency in their content.
Energy sales and consumption
The final stage in the process of servicing electricity is its sales and consumption. Like all products on the market, energy is sold, but in this case, the implementation scheme is more complicated. Calculations are made after the transfer of electricity readings for its operation in a dwelling, office or production facility. Energy sales are carried out by special organizations that supply the produced electrical energy.
At the same time there are two types of sales. In the first case, it is called energy trading, involving the purchase of a resource on the wholesale market from the direct producer. Further, the intermediary organizes work with network companies that are engaged in sales in retail. At this stage, the transmission of data for electricity from end-users with the subsequent calculations. In the second variant, a scheme is implemented in which the manufacturer initially offers its services in the retail market.
Indications for electricity
The rates for the resource may vary depending on different factors. However, the calculation methods usually the same. Network company or the representatives of energy-producing enterprises take readings of metering devices, and then present to the consumers account. But most often, the transmission of readings of the electricity produced by the users themselves. Data is sent to the offices of the organizations are sent through the online service or dictated by phone. Each supplier also establishes measures for the recovery of debts.
It is important to note that the accrual of payments may include accounting for planned and actual consumption. After the electricity data has been transferred, company representatives issue a statement, bill and collect payments.
Technical and scientific progress demonstrates that the global energy potential is a key factor in the development of industry and production, together with increasing the efficiency of transport infrastructure. But for ordinary users, the generation and transmission of electricity at a distance, above all, provides personal comfort of existence. For the right to use energy, people are willing to pay large sums of tariffs. This indicates the utility and demand for electricity, not only among large industrial enterprises, but also among ordinary citizens, whose life is no longer without electrical appliances.