The subject and the predicate are those terms of the sentence, without which the main syntactic unit is untenable. In addition to their definition and designation, in the scheme there is another difficulty - punctuation. The dash between the subject and the predicate is often skipped, which leads to errors and lower scores. Consider the main clauses of a sentence in the light of syntax and punctuation.
On the subject of the speech shall specify in the sentence the subject. It is always only in the nominative case. For example, “To replace the summer comes autumn coolness”. Asking what it says, it's easy to find the subject. Refers to the cool. Word used in the form of the nominative case, consequently, the thinking of the faithful.
The most common subjects are:
- Nouns in the form of the nominative case.
- Pronouns (close in morphological features to nouns):Everyone thought about the trip after the incident.
- Infinitives:Working is the main rule of a successful career.
- Phrases:Three brothers stood a little distance.
The predicate is presented in Russian more extensively. It indicates what is said in the sentence about the subject of speech. It is a mistake to assume that this member means only action. It can indicate what the subject is, who and what it is.
For example:Tomorrow I'll talk to the director about your problem. Predictive “talk” indicates action.
Trees became silver from the first snow and light frost. Predicative “steel silver” indicates what the subject of speech.
A tiger is a dangerous beast, but exceptionally cute. The predicate “beast” says who performs the action.
There are predicate simple and composite. The former consist of one or several words and contain both a lexical and grammatical meaning. “I study in the best institution of the country” - the predicate “I study” is expressed by a verb of the present tense, it consists of one word. “I will study in the best institute of the country”. Here the predicate consists of two words, which are a form of a complex future tense.
The compound predicate includes two or more words. Its main difference from the simple one is that each of the parts contains either a lexical or grammatical component. “I wanted to study in the best institute of the country” - here the predicate consists of two words, one of which (like) indicates grammatical signs: unitary, m. past time, and the second (to study) is in the form of an infinitive, however, it contains a semantic content.
It should be noted that the subject and predicate are equal members of the sentence. There is no subordinate connection between them. In other words, they are not a phrase. However, consistency in number or number and kind is still present.
Dash put when?
Usually the subject and predicate are not broken by punctuation. However, there are situations when no auxiliary units in grammatical framework, see nouns, infinitives or numerals. In such cases, between subject and predicate is the dash. Let us examine these cases, we give examples.
- Subject and predicate – nouns. In this case there is a composite nominal predicate, without an auxiliary verb: “the Cat is a domestic pet, domesticated thousands of years ago.” The subject is “the cat” (a noun), the predicate “pet” (the noun).
- Main sentences – infinitives. Here are the compound verbal predicate without the verb-cords: “to Learn – to contribute to its own future.” Subject – “learn” (verb in basic form), verb – “do” (verb in basic form).
- Subject and predicate - the names of the numerals. "Five-ten - fifty." The part before the dash is the subject, the “fifty” is the predicate.
- Grammatical base: noun as subject and infinitive verb - predicate. “Your duty is to help fellow servicemen.” The subject - “obligation” (noun), “help” - predicates in the form of infinitive.
- The case opposite to the previous one: the subject is an infinitive verb, the predicate is a noun. “Helping colleagues is your duty.” “To help” is a subject in the form of an infinitive, “duty” is a predicate expressed by a noun.
Also, a dash between the subject and the predicate must be put if the predicate particles are used in the predicate: “Kindness is a ray of light in the world of soullessness”; “Hope is what remains after many disappointments.”
Dash is not put
Sometimes, incorrectly defining the subject, the predicate, they put a dash in error.Let us consider the cases when this punctuation mark is not needed:
- If the predicate contains a negation (the particle is “not”).Heat is not a reason to stay at home.
- If there are comparative particles adjacent to the predicate.The forest is like a fairy tale.
- With the pronoun subject, the predicate is not separated by a dash.He is a talented general practitioner.