The subject and predicate are those members of the sentence, without which the main syntactic unit is untenable. In addition to their definition and designation, the scheme has another difficulty - punctuation. A dash between the subject and the predicate is often skipped, leading to errors and a reduction in scores. Consider the main terms of the sentence in the light of syntax and punctuation.
On the subject of the speech shall specify in the sentence the subject. It is always only in the nominative case. For example, “To replace the summer comes autumn coolness”. Asking what it says, it's easy to find the subject. Refers to the cool. Word used in the form of the nominative case, consequently, the thinking of the faithful.
The most common are:
- Nouns in the nominative case.
- Pronouns (similar in morphological features to nouns):Everyone thought about the trip after the incident.
- Infinitives:Work - the main rule of a successful career.
- Phrases:The three brothers stood a little further away.
The predicate is presented in Russian more extensively. It indicates what is narrated in the sentence about the subject of speech. It is a mistake to believe that this term refers exclusively to action. It can indicate what the subject is, who it is and what it is.
For example:I'll have a talk with the director tomorrow on your problem. Predicate "talk" indicates action.
The trees became silver from the first snow and a light frost. Predicative "became silver" indicates what is the subject of speech.
Tiger - a beast though dangerous, but exceptionally cute. Predicative "beast" says who performs the action.
There are predicate simple and compound predicates. The first consist of one or more words and contain both lexical and grammatical meaning. "I'm studying at the best institute in the country" - the predicate "I'm learning" is expressed by the verb of the present time, consists of one word. "I will study at the best institute in the country." Here the predicate consists of two words, which form a complex future tense.
A compound predicate includes two or more words. Its main difference from simple is that each of the parts carries in itself either a lexical or grammatical component. "I wanted to study in the best institute of the country" - here the predicate consists of two words, one of which (wanted) indicates grammatical signs: singular, mr. past. time, and the second (to learn) is in the form of an infinitive, but it contains a semantic content.
It should be noted that the subject and the predicate are equal members of the sentence. Between them there is no subordinate connection. In other words, they are not a word combination. However, consistency in number or number and genus is still present.
Dash is put when?
Usually the subject and predicate are not broken by punctuation. However, there are situations when no auxiliary units in grammatical framework, see nouns, infinitives or numerals. In such cases, between subject and predicate is the dash. Let us examine these cases, we give examples.
- Subject and predicate – nouns. In this case there is a composite nominal predicate, without an auxiliary verb: “the Cat is a domestic pet, domesticated thousands of years ago.” The subject is “the cat” (a noun), the predicate “pet” (the noun).
- Main sentences – infinitives. Here are the compound verbal predicate without the verb-cords: “to Learn – to contribute to its own future.” Subject – “learn” (verb in basic form), verb – “do” (verb in basic form).
- The subject and the predicate are numerals. "Five ten to fifty." The part before the dash is the subject, the "fifty" is the predicate.
- Grammatical basis: a noun as a subject and a verb-infinitive - a predicate. "Your duty is to help colleagues." The subject is "duty" (noun), "help" is a predicate in the form of an infinitive.
- The case opposite to the previous one: the subject is an infinitive verb, the predicate is a noun. "Helping colleagues is your responsibility." "Help" is a subject in the form of an infinitive, "duty" is a predicate expressed by a noun.
Also, a dash between the subject and the predicate must be placed if the indicative uses index particles: "Kindness is a ray of light in the world of callousness"; "Hope - that's what remains after a lot of disappointments."
Dash is not put
Sometimes, incorrectly determining the subject, the predicate, the dash is set erroneously.Let us analyze the cases when this punctuation character is not needed:
- If the predicate contains negation (the particle is not).Heat is not an excuse to stay at home.
- If there are observed comparative particles adjacent to the predicate.The forest is like a fairy tale.
- With the pronoun to be pronounced, the predicate is not separated by a dash.He is a talented general practitioner.