On our planet you can name a few countries that are a continuation of the most ancient civilizations, which are something known to modern man are Egypt, India, China. They are much older civilizations of the Mediterranean. For its nearly 4,000-year history of the largest country in East Asia has not once changed its name. So why is China called China? We should mention that the so called only Russian. Ekzoetnonim in the Russian language are the terms "Chinese" and "Germans". What is it? So the names and definitions do not coincide with the self of the people. For the rest of the world China – Chin, hin, or China.
The two most popular self-designation
Themselves the Chinese also called Chinese. And how they call themselves, and as the Chinese call China? Chinese self – Han (95% of the population). So called the greatest nation, who inhabited this country that the people themselves in a certain period called Zhongguo or "Middle Kingdom". These two self-name of the country and the people are the most famous in the world. Han is the titular nation, and takes its name from the Han dynasty, during the reign of which the heyday of ancient Chinese civilization. The Han dynasty, which took its name from the river Hanshou, occurring in the Central part of China, succeeded the Qin dynasty, the rulers of which managed by force to unite the constantly warring kingdoms. And all this: and Association, and economic prosperity – contributed to the growth of consciousness of the Chinese people and the emergence of a sense of being one nation.
Purely Russian name
There are several options why is China called China. But the most plausible and accepted by most as the main is the option that is associated with the nomadic Khitans. These "brutal knights of the steppes" in the tenth century conquered the country bordering them to the South. But not all of its territory, and only the Northern part, which had established dominance of the state of Liao. Is whether of the Mongolian, or Manchu-Tungus tribe of the neighbors called China, or the Empire, Kara-Khitan or. In different languages their state pronounced differently: China, xitoy, Katy, khitaan. Somehow these names were in Russian language. This is the most plausible explanation for why China is called China. And in the Russian language, this title appeared only after the XVII century, and before that we have this country called Bugdayci Kingdom.
All sorts of options
The word "China" in the Russian language was quite common. For example, wide circulation had the term "whale" having a set of values: and a braided pigtail, and part of the outfit. In explaining why China is called China, sometimes draw analogies with Scythia. In short, interpretations and assumptions are many, but the most acceptable, as noted above, is associated with a militant tribe of Northern nomads, the Khitan. Accepted all over the world the name of this country, called in English as China, too, has nothing to do with the self-designation of China, but presumably comes from the term "Khin".
There are other names of this country, causing the issues. For example, why is China called middle Kingdom? It is also a history that goes back to antiquity, in Confucianism. What is it? It developed in the 6th century BC, Confucius (551-479 BCE) the ethical-philosophical and socio-political doctrine, which became the official religion of China and formed the basis of the structure of the state and society. Unchanged it played a major role in over 2,000 years.
A protege of heaven
To understand why China is called China, you should be familiar with the basic tenets of Confucianism. Chief among them: “the Most important person on earth is Chinese Emperor”. He is the ruler of the world, the messenger of heaven, and his court, of course, is the center of the universe. The Sky temple is the Central sanctuary of the city. It in difficult or important moments for the country, the Emperor communicated directly with Heaven, that it suggested the correct solution. Some come down to our day it was lush, crowded spectacle that lasts up to two weeks.
Stored and managed by the air
"Celestial" is a representation of the Chinese about their place, of course, the first and most important thing beneath the whole heaven. So to think in those days it was easy, because the people of this country about the existence of the vast world behind the Chinese wall is found only in connection with the visit to their country by the legendary Marco Polo in 1266. He opened China to the Europeans and the Chinese learned that in the world there civilization no less ancient than they: the Mediterranean, India, Egypt. And even then, it learned not broad masses, and the elected people at the court of the Mandarin. And before his arrival the medieval Chinese believed that their country is between heaven and earth, and the firmament covers only the part ruled by the Emperor, the messenger of the Sky – that is why China is called "the celestial country" or Tanisha. And how can be changed the country, which leads directly to the Sky? China.
But this name did not last. The Chinese saw themselves as a peaceful, God-fearing people living on the territory, on the one hand surrounded by the mountains, by the sea, on the third they attacked the warlike and bloodthirsty nomads. And they – in the middle. How is such a country? Naturally, the "Median state." In the East like flowery speech, a lot of sense the terms and names. Therefore, some time China was called "the Country, building socialism," or "a Country of great prospects", or the "land of hardworking people" – and all of these unofficial, but understandable to each title correspond to the truth. But of course, it is impossible to ignore the official name given to the country after the revolution of 1949. "Zhonghua Renmin gongheguo" or (literal translation) "Mid blooming country of the universal harmony of the people." In the name of the Chinese people's Republic were taken into account all of the great names of the China of yesteryear.
Do not count titles
Of course, it is the largest and most important country in East Asia, drastically changed the fate of the world, giving him the printing press, paper, gunpowder, compass and many more, the enumeration and description of what can go another page in its long history, not just changing the self, and other countries called it different. It is possible to result following examples. Sun tan was the name of the country in honor of wise rulers or high culture, which the state is proud of. She was called Qing. That means "pure", Ming – light and yuan – main. Sometimes, no matter who rules the country, it was called also the Middle of the country (Zhongguo), Mid flowering (Zhonghua), or a Blossoming Xia (Xia – an ancient dynasty of China). From her did the ancient Chinese self – Huaxia. In this word the particle "Xia" is already familiar to us, and "Hua" means "flower", "lush", but simply "magnificent". As you can see, the inhabitants of the country from time immemorial treated myself with proper and justifiable reverence.
A country open to Europeans again
This unique country with its own worldview, polished by centuries with their wisdom, diligence and obedience is sometimes another planet. How to call China? For centuries, this amazing country is often worn as noted above, the names of the ruling dynasties. In addition, it was called the Seres. This is for the dense medieval Europe, Marco Polo discovered China, and ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean knew about this country as a destination of the silk road. The term "Great silk way" was introduced only in 1877 the German geographer Richthofen. Named differently, it was known in antiquity, then forgotten, and restored in the Middle ages. The caravan road linked the Mediterranean with Eastern Asia from the second century BC. This was facilitated by the conquests of Alexander the great. Known year send the first caravan to Fergana – 121 BC. Drove mainly silk from China, but bronze mirrors were in great demand. So little that was carrying caravans from China.
And what's another name for China? In ancient times when the Chinese believed that they are the main and almost the only one on earth, except for a handful of barbarians, the Sky created specifically to annoy them, and the earth, as they rightly believed, surrounded by water, they called their country, sihai commercial, which means "surrounded by four seas", i.e. on all four sides. Residents of Central and Northern Europe called the country or kin hin. In connection with such diversity of names of the country, as they call the people of China? Yourself the Chinese call and junghagen – from the name Zhongguo, meaning “inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom.” They called themselves by the name of the most famous and great dynasty of China – Han – Han or hanging. Usually the name of the inhabitants is derived from the name of their country. So, in Russia for a very long time, residents of China are called Chinese. Now this enigmatic, as the whole of the East, the country becomes the most significant on the planet. So perhaps in a very short time what they're told to call, so they will be known throughout the world.