Probably, no one will argue that the health of a person depends on what the parents have invested in him, and to take care of the child's well-being must begin at the earliest stages. Ploskovolgusnye feet in children often cause flatfoot, and it is important to notice and correct this defect in time.
What is a valgus foot?
Since the birth of the child and until the moment when he begins to make his own first steps, on average it takes about a year. Of course, this long-awaited event almost touches tears to parents, but it sometimes brings unpleasant surprises. The child may have a decrease in the arch of the feet and bend the axis of the foot. Orthopedists call this phenomenon like: flat-footed feet. In children visually they appear as the letter "X". In this case, the axis, running vertically from the shin to the foot, deflects inwards, the arch of the foot decreases until it flattened, and the heels and toes are deflected outward. Babies with such impairments quickly become tired, prefer to sit, move little. Examinations of pediatric orthopedists (according to the rules they need to be completed in 1, 3, 6, 12 months) allow to reveal this pathology at the earliest stages.
Causes of development
Ploskovalgusnaya deformation of feet in children can be both congenital and acquired. Congenital pathology is laid in the period of intrauterine development. Most often it happens if the fruit is large and is located, resting on the feet, thereby deforming them. It is diagnosed right after birth or in the first months of a child's life. The acquired flat-foot deformity of the feet in children is the result of the underdeveloped ligamentous and tendinous apparatus of the child. As a rule, it manifests itself up to 14 months, just when the baby takes the first steps. The following factors may provoke this defect:
- infections or their consequences (poliomyelitis);
- frequent diseases (they lead to the fact that the baby moves less, and the ligamentous and muscular skeleton practically does not develop);
- unreasonable loads;
- walking barefoot on a smooth surface;
- injury or injury to the feet or ankle;
- wrong shoes;
- illiteracy of parents in the prevention of flatfoot development.
Of course, while the child is just learning to walk alone, his gait is not very elegant and it can be difficult to determine by eye what is wrong. But if the kid has already stood on the legs for a long time and has gone, the following signs should alert the mothers:
- the child does not fully rise on the foot, more leaning on the inner edge;
- the foot acquires an X-shape;
- there is a shuffling gait;
- uncertain steps;
- fast fatigue while walking.
Degrees of development
Due to the fact that the formation of the musculoskeletal system of the child ends at about 6 years, a diagnosis such as "flat feet" is not put to them, replacing it with the term "valgus feet". In the event that the changes acquire a pronounced effect, then they speak of a flat-valvular deformation. To ensure that they do not develop into a full-fledged flat foot in the future, these changes need to be identified and treated as soon as possible. That is why before the age of 6, an orthopedic surgeon should be examined once every six months. In the case of detection of valgus foot, depending on the degree of deviation, it is determined by four degrees of development:
- The deviation is from 10 to 15 °. Such deviations occur quite often and are easily amenable to correction.
- The deviation from the norm in the range of 15 to 20 ° will require the parents of certain efforts, but also well adjusted.
- If the angle of inclination is from 20 to 30 °, then a long treatment is required.
- A deviation of more than 30 ° often requires surgical intervention.
Before starting treatment, the doctor must confirm the diagnosis and more thoroughly understand the changes that occur in the foot of the child. For this purpose the following examinations are carried out:
- podometriya - allows you to identify the presence of pathological changes;
- radiography - in case of suspicion of flat-footed feet, children are supposed to take foot shots in three projections, but this is very rare for babies;
- computer-based planometry - the study shows the existing parameters of the feet;
- in some cases for a more detailed examination appoint ultrasound joints.
Treatment of flat-foot deformities of feet in children
Elimination of this defect depends on the cause that caused it. If the pathology is congenital, the therapeutic measures begin immediately or during the first month of life. At the first stages it can consist in plaster bandages, fixing the legs in the correct position. Then they prescribe massage, orthopedic shoes and physiotherapy.
If the defect is not congenital and becomes noticeable after the baby has gone, the treatment is slightly different. Consultation with a pediatric orthopedist is the first thing that parents should do if they suspect such a deviation as a flat-foot deformity of feet in children.
Komarovsky, like many of his colleagues, believes that in most cases this defect can pass independently and does not need special treatment. The child's ligament, when he is just beginning to walk, is not yet adapted to such loads. Just think: on an unprepared foot, the weight of an one-year-old child immediately falls! It is not surprising that she is not able to withstand it at once, and the result is flat-footed feet in children. Treatment in this case will be long and complex, but it is not in the intake of medicinal substances, but in the following manipulations:
- foot baths;
- orthopedic shoes;
- physiotherapeutic procedures.
Massage with flat feet in children
Massage is an essential element of care, not only in cases where the problem has already appeared, but also for preventive purposes. In general, for the normal development of a child, it is best to start doing it from one and a half months, combining it with developing exercises and tempering. A massage can be performed by both a specialist and parents, after a short training course. For children who are already firmly on their legs, massage is combined with the course of exercise therapy with a flat-footed foot in children. The course lasts a month, after a three-week break it can be repeated.
Scheme of the massage
The child is placed on the abdomen so that the feet are outside the table, the calf is placed under the tibia.
- Massage begins from the back, with strokes along the spine in the direction from the waist to the neck, and then to the lateral surfaces. After that, the fingertips of the muscles need to grind and knead, "saw" with their ribs of the palms or crests of the bent fingers. Finish strokes.
- The lumbosacral zone is also kneaded from the spine to the sides and down, alternating stroking, rubbing, kneading and again stroking.
- The buttock area is also massaged, starting with stroking and alternating rubbing, percussion techniques (tapping, tapping) and kneading. Finish stroking.
- The posterior surface of the thighs is massaged from the popliteal cavity upward and outward, conducting stroking, rubbing, kneading, effleurage, finishing stroking.
- The impact on the posterior surface of the tibia in the presence of such a pathology as flat-footed feet in children requires a more selective approach. Begin the impact with strokes that go from the heel to the popliteal fossa, then it must be divided. The part of the muscle that is located to the outside, rub, stroke and knead, trying to relax it as much as possible. In addition, good results show shaking and stretching. The inner part is tried to be stimulated as much as possible, using energetic rubbing, deep kneading, fretting and chopping.
- Begin to massage the foot. She is given the position of supination (you need to deploy her sole inside). The sole is first stroked, and then thoroughly rubbed and kneaded, paying special attention to the inner edge. After this, the child is turned over on his back. The roller is placed under the knees.
- Massage the front surface begins with strokes along the entire length of the leg, and then go on to massage the thigh. Movements are made from below, towards the outside and upwards, making strokes, rubbing, kneading, shaking and again stroking.
- The front surface of the thigh should be massaged using all the above techniques. Direction of movement - from below upwards and to the outside. The front surface of the shank is massaged in the same way from the foot to the knee.
- The ankle is massaged, stroking in a circular motion, then it needs to be grinded, paying special attention to the inner surface.
- The foot is massaged with one hand, while the other slightly turns it inside. Apply techniques of stroking and rubbing apart fingers, focusing on the inside of the foot and the area of the thumb.
Exercise for flat feet in children is no less important than massage. You need to do exercises in thin socks, breaking the complex so that at a time you can perform no more than three exercises, but during the day to conduct several classes. Exercises for flat feet in children should be performed daily, but they need to be organized so that the child gets pleasure from them.
- A wonderful and affordable exercise, strengthening the muscles and ligaments, is walking along the path. It can serve as a board or a painted strip 15 cm wide. It is necessary to offer the child to pass without leaving it. On the street, the path can successfully replace the log, which is probably on any playground, or the border that encloses the sidewalk. Doing this exercise, you need to ensure that the child correctly put the foot.
- Walking on the outer edge of the foot.
- Rise to the socks. It is better to spend it in a playful form, when the kid first stretches up, climbing on the tiptoes, and then squats with support on the entire foot.
- Capture and lifting of small objects with the fingers of the feet perfectly develops their muscles, increasing mobility. It can be performed both standing and sitting. Another option of this exercise may be to collect the toes of the tissue.
- Well adjusted valgus feet sitting "in Turkish", while lifting from this position is also a necessary and important part of the exercise. The feet must remain crossed. For the greatest effect, it is better to change them, alternately leaving the front right first, then the left leg. Probably, in the beginning it is necessary to help the child to get up and even to hold stops, but then he will learn to do it independently.
Gymnastics at a flat-footed foot in children means not only exercises. Walking on an uneven surface is not only curative, but also an excellent prevention tool. In summer you can walk barefoot on sand, grass or small pebbles. They irritate the muscles of the foot and make them work. In winter, such walks with success will replace the relief rug and the sand, which is packed into the box, which will help to correct the flat-footed feet in children. Komarovsky, by the way, considers the ideal simulator for such conditions a Swedish wall. Apart from the fact that it develops dexterity and endurance, the load that the foot and ankle get when lifting and lowering, helps the development of muscles and ligaments.
The right shoes
Shoes with a flat-footed foot in children is of great importance, and it is necessary to select it correctly from an early age. At the same time, each age has its own requirements. So, for a child who has not yet turned a year, you need to choose shoes, proceeding from the fact that it should be as light as possible, with a minimum number of seams and easily fixed on the foot. As a rule, its main task (except for the preservation of heat) is to strengthen the child's habit of wearing shoes. It is important to make sure that he does not pull it off. It will not be easy to fight an ingrained habit.
Shoes for a child under three years of age must have a firm backdrop and a flexible sole. It is better if it is equipped with a lacing or Velcro closure, which allows you to fix the ankle. Up to the age of seven, it is important to wear shoes that, along with a hard back, would not squeeze the fingers and would fit elastically around the widest place of the foot.
A healthy child half the time that he spends on his feet can remain barefoot, but not on a smooth floor or laminate (a carpet with high pile in such cases may well replace grass or sand). If the orthopedist confirms a flat-lingual deformation, then the use of orthopedic insoles becomes mandatory. They must be made individually and replaced as the child grows.