The area of ​​Europe is measured in many ways. This can be a geographical and political approach.

The area of Europe and its borders

This is an important point for determining the area. There are several points of view on where the border between Europe and Asia lies. From this, in particular, depends on the area of ​​each part of the world. This is due to the fact that they are not separated by seas or other water bodies, on the basis of which such large regions are usually divided. If in America the border is easy to navigate along the narrow Panama Isthmus, and Africa is separated from Asia by the Suez Canal, then in the case of Europe and Asia this is not so easy.

Most often, the formal section passes along the Ural mountains, the same river, and along the coast of the Caspian Sea. The borders on the Caucasus are even more diverse, so they often use the formal border between Russia and the Transcaucasian republics. The strait separating the Black Sea and the Mediterranean (and also the Marble) is a geographical boundary between two parts of the world. Therefore, Turkey, which is located not only in Asia, but also in the European province of Thrace, often refers to both the countries of the West and the countries of the East. Here you can add Russia and Kazakhstan, part of the territory of which is in the Old World. There are many symbols located on an imaginary border, for example, there are such symbols in different Urals cities: obelisks, steles and signs.

The largest and smallest countries

The area of ​​Europe consists of many states. Of course, Russia is the biggest. Of the 17 million square meters. km 3 783 thousand square meters. km² are located exactly in the Old World, that is to the west of the Ural Mountains. The countries of Europe in terms of area differ from each other not very much, and usually fluctuate in insignificant figures. Of the countries that are entirely in Europe, the largest is Ukraine, then France, Spain, Sweden, Norway, Kazakhstan (just west of the Ural River), Germany, Finland and Poland. It is interesting that Scandinavian countries are among the largest in Europe, but their population is much smaller than those countries that are located to the south. Of course, this is due to natural and climatic conditions.

Another category of states is dwarfs, existing for historical and regional reasons. These are the Vatican, San Marino, Andorra, Liechtenstein and Luxembourg. This is Europe. The total area of ​​"dwarfs" is not even a percentage of large states.

The area of ​​Europe in km is 10 million square meters. km². It is divided into several parts. The largest of them is the Eastern one (4 million 593 thousand square km²). This is the European part of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. The largest peninsula is the Pyrenean (800 thousand This is the western tip of the continent, here is Spain and Portugal. Europe is located not only on the mainland. The largest island is Great Britain (229,000 sq km).

Climatic features

The area of ​​Europe can be divided into several climatic and geographical regions. This is the arctic tundra in the north of Scandinavia and the islands of the Arctic Ocean. To the south it is replaced by taiga, mixed, broad-leaved forests, forest-steppes and steppes. Subtropics and semi-deserts are located on the outskirts, for example, in the interfluve of the Volga and the Urals in the territory of Kazakhstan. Sometimes to this geographical type include some areas of the Iberian Peninsula and Kalmykia. Most often, desertification occurred because of excessive human economic activity.

The area of ​​Europe is divided into several cultural and religious parts. The Balkans are in the southeast and belong to the same peninsula and mountains. Here one of the greatest civilizations of antiquity was born. Ancient Greece became the birthplace of many achievements of mankind in science and culture. In general, the entire coast of the Mediterranean Sea is the most adapted to human life. The coastline is considerably rugged. The Roman civilization was born on the Apennine peninsula. Now Italians live there, and there is a world center of Catholicism. The Perinean peninsula became the abode of the Spaniards and the Portuguese. In the Middle Ages, these lands were under the control of Muslims - Arabs and Berbers. Because of this, a unique culture and ethnic group originated there.

Western Europe also includes France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, the Benelux countries, as well as the alpine states - Austria and Switzerland. There is a high standard of living and a rich infrastructure. To the east of them are the Slavic countries: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Southern Slavs live in the Balkans. The Baltic Sea is deeply embedded in the territory of mainland Europe in the north. In addition to the above, the Baltic countries adjoin it: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The Scandinavian peninsula to the north of this sea is the location of Norway, Sweden and Finland. In the cultural and national sense, they are regarded as Denmark - a small monarchy to the north of Germany.