The area of ​​Europe is measured in different ways. This may be a geographical and political approach.

The area of Europe and its borders

This is an important point to determine the area. There are several points of view on where the border between Europe and Asia lies. From this, including, depends on the area of ​​each part of the world. This is due to the fact that they are not separated by seas or other water areas, on the basis of which such large regions are usually divided. If in America it is easy to draw a border along the narrow Panamanian isthmus, and Africa is separated from Asia by the Suez Canal, in the case of Europe and Asia this is not so easy to do.

Most often, the formal section takes place in the Ural Mountains, the river of the same name, and also along the coast of the Caspian Sea. The borders across the Caucasus are even more diverse, which is why they most often use the formal border between Russia and the Transcaucasian republics. The strait separating the Black Sea and the Mediterranean (as well as the Marmara Sea) is the geographical boundary between the two parts of the world. Therefore, Turkey, which is located not only in Asia, but also in the European province of Thrace, often refers both to the countries of the West and to the countries of the East. Here you can add Russia and Kazakhstan, part of the territory of which is located in the Old World. There are many symbols located on an imaginary border, for example, there are such in different Ural cities: obelisks, steles and signs.

The biggest and smallest countries

The area of ​​Europe is made up of many states. Of course, the biggest is Russia. Of the 17 million square meters. km² 3 783 thousand square meters. km² are located precisely in the Old World, that is, to the west of the Ural Mountains. The countries of Europe do not differ much in terms of area, and usually fluctuate in insignificant numbers. Of the countries that are entirely in Europe, the largest is Ukraine, then France, Spain, Sweden, Norway, Kazakhstan (only west of the Ural River), Germany, Finland and Poland. Interestingly, the Scandinavian countries are among the largest in Europe, but their population is much smaller than those located to the south. Of course, this is due to natural and climatic conditions.

Another category of state - dwarfs, existing for historical and regional reasons. These are the Vatican, San Marino, Andorra, Liechtenstein and Luxembourg. This is Europe. The total area of ​​“dwarfs” does not even make up a percentage of large states.

The area of ​​Europe in km is 10 million square meters. km². It is divided into several parts. The largest of them - East (4 million. 593 thousand square. Km ²). This is the European part of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. The largest peninsula is the Iberian (800 thousand square kilometers). This is the western tip of the mainland, here is Spain and Portugal. Europe is located not only on the mainland. The largest island is Great Britain (229 thousand sq. Km²).

Climatic features

The area of ​​Europe can be divided into several climatic and geographical regions. This is the arctic tundra in the north of Scandinavia and the islands of the Arctic Ocean. To the south it is replaced by taiga, mixed, deciduous forests, forest-steppes and steppes. Subtropics and half-ridges are located on the outskirts, for example, between the Volga and the Urals in Kazakhstan. Sometimes, some areas of the Iberian Peninsula and Kalmykia are attributed to this geographical type. Most often, desertification occurred due to excessive human economic activity.

The area of ​​Europe is divided into several cultural and religious parts. The Balkans are located in the south-east and belong to the peninsula of the same name and mountains. Here was born one of the greatest civilizations of antiquity. Ancient Greece became the birthplace of many achievements of mankind in science and culture. In general, the entire coast of the Mediterranean Sea is most adapted to human life. The coastline is considerably indented. On the peninsula peninsula originated Roman civilization. Italians now live there, and the world center of Catholicism is located. Periniysky peninsula became the abode of the Spaniards and Portuguese. In the Middle Ages, these lands were under the control of Muslims - Arabs and Berbers. Because of this, a unique culture and ethnic group originated there.

France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, the Benelux countries, as well as the Alpine states Austria and Switzerland also belong to Western Europe. There is a high standard of living and rich infrastructure. East of them are the Slavic countries: Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Southern Slavs live in the Balkans. The Baltic Sea cuts deep into mainland Europe to the north. In addition to the above, the Baltic countries are adjacent to it: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The Scandinavian peninsula in the north of this sea - the location of Norway, Sweden and Finland. In a cultural and national sense, they rank Denmark - a small monarchy north of Germany.