In some rivers, due to the strong thawing of snow, constant spring floods occur. These include almost all watercourses of the former Soviet Union. They, in turn, are divided into several species. The most common types of river regimes are Kazakhstan, West Siberian, Altai, East European, East Siberian.
Even in the lower grades they study that the feeding of rivers is explained by the water cycle in nature. However, this formulation is general; in order to fully penetrate this question and understand where and which method will be appropriate, it is necessary to study everything in the most detail. There is rain, glacial, snow and underground food. Both the regime of rivers and the replenishment of the waters of a stream depend mainly on climatic conditions. For example, in countries with hot weather, snow type of food is practically absent. In cold conditions, the main role is played by thawed and groundwater. In a temperate climate, mixed foods prevail.
Rain and snow feeding of rivers
The regime of the river, which feeds on rains, has such a feature as the occurrence of frequent floods. Unlike floods, they occur absolutely at any time of the year. There are floods where it rains often enough, and in winter the temperature is so favorable that the water flow is not covered with ice. Some rivers of the mountains have exclusively rain food. These are the waterways of the Baikal, Kamchatka, Altai, etc.
For watercourses with snow feeding is characterized by soft water and low salt levels. Most of the rivers of this type in the summer is almost not replenished. Also here are often mixed flows of water flows. The most favorable location of the rivers of this type of food are the mountains, which are annually covered with thick layers of snow.
Underground and glacial river feeding
In countries that are located on the mountains and at their foot, the rivers have glacial power. In summertime, the maximum replenishment of water flows occurs as a result of melting of many large glaciers. This type of food is the most dangerous, especially in combination with snow. Often there is too much melt water (it depends on the size of the glaciers), which makes it possible for the river to leave its banks. That is why the land located near watercourses with such power is sparsely populated and rarely amenable to treatment, since the damage caused by floods is too great.
Underground (or groundwater) regime of the river is less common than the already described types of food. This type is studied by the State Hydrological Institute of Russia. The regime itself is divided into soil and artesian food. However, the main source of replenishment of rivers is still groundwater. Scientists in the course of research have found out the fact that this type of food is great for small water streams, and for large ones it is absolutely not typical.
Rivers with Altai, East Siberian and West Siberian regimes
Low, stretched flood, low water level in the winter time, increased flow in the summer and autumn season - features of the Altai type. This regime of the river differs from the others in that the main food is not only meltwater, but also rainfall. The flood is long with a low level of water uplift. Snow melting from different sides, falls into the river evenly - this explains the phenomenon.
For the East Siberian type, such features as high floods in summer and autumn, as well as an increased level of flood in spring are characteristic. Kolyma, Aldan, Tunguska - the rivers belonging to this regime. In winter, they often freeze over completely due to low flow. This can be explained by the fact that the power supply of the watercourses is mainly groundwater, and in winter it is reduced to a minimum.
Such water regime of the rivers as the West Siberian is found in the area of the forest zone. The spring flood is unsharp, stretched, does not have high levels of water uplift. In summer and autumn, runoff is elevated; in winter, low water is characteristic. Such “behavior” of rivers is due to the flat topography and the swampiness of the lowlands on which they are located.
Rivers with Eastern European and Kazakh regime
The characteristic high spring flood, an increased level of runoff in the fall (due to heavy rainfall) and low water in the summer and winter season clearly define the Eastern European regime of the river. Autumn floods are quite pronounced in all areas except the southern. Small rivers with an area of no more than 300 km 2. Prone to drying out and freezing in the summer and winter. For large watercourses, such phenomena are very rare.
The rivers with the Kazakhstan type are characterized by a high spring flood, while in the summer, in the winter and in the autumn they are very dry and most often dry up. There are such flows in Kazakhstan, the Volga region, in the region of the Aral-Caspian lowland. In fact, they are common in those places where the source of food is only snow.