For some rivers, due to the strong melting of the snow, constant spring floods occur. These include almost all the watercourses of the former Soviet Union. They, in turn, are divided into several more types. The most common types of regime of rivers: Kazakhstan, West Siberian, Altai, East European, East Siberian.
Feeding of rivers
Even in the junior classes they study that the feeding of rivers is explained by the water cycle in nature. However, this formulation is general; in order to fully understand this question and to understand where and what method will be appropriate, it is necessary to study everything in the most detail. There is rain, glacial, snow and underground food. And the regime of rivers, and replenishment of the water flow depends mainly on climatic conditions. For example, in countries with hot weather, the snow type is practically absent. In cold conditions, the main role is played by thaw and groundwater. In a temperate climate mixed food predominates.
Rain and snow feeding of rivers
The regime of the river, which is fed by rain, has such a feature, as the occurrence of frequent floods. Unlike floods, they occur absolutely at any time of the year. Floods occur where rains are frequent enough, and in winter the temperature is so favorable that the water flow is not covered by ice. Some rivers of mountains have exclusively rain food. These are the waterways of the Baikal region, Kamchatka, Altai, and others.
For watercourses with snow feeding is characterized by soft water and low salt level. Most of the rivers of this type are practically not replenished in the summer. Also, water flows with a mixed regime are often found here. The most favorable location of rivers of this type of food is the mountains, which are annually covered with thick layers of snow.
Underground and glacial feeding of rivers
In the countries that are located on the mountains and at their foothills, the rivers have glacial food. In the summer, there is a maximum replenishment of water flows as a result of the melting of many large glaciers. This type of food is the most dangerous, especially when combined with snow. Often, meltwater is too much (this depends on the size of the glaciers), which allows the river to leave its banks. That is why the land located near watercourses with such food is not widely populated and rarely amenable to processing, since the damage caused by floods is too great.
Underground (or ground) regime of the river is less widespread than the types of food already described. This type is studied by the State Hydrological Institute of Russia. The regime itself is divided into ground and artesian food. However, the main source of replenishment of rivers is still underground water. Scientists in the course of research found out the fact that this type of food is excellent for small water flows, but for large ones it is absolutely not characteristic.
The rivers with Altai, East Siberian and West Siberian regimes
Low, stretched high water, low water level in the winter period, increased run-off in the summer and autumn season are features of the Altaian type. This regime of the river differs from the others in that the main food is not only thawed water, but also rainfall. The high water is protracted with a low level of water rising. Snow, melting from different directions, falls into the rivers evenly - this explains this phenomenon.
For the East Siberian type, features such as high floods in summer and autumn are characteristic, as well as an increased level of flood in the spring. Kolyma, Aldan, Tunguska are rivers belonging to this regime. In winter, they often freeze completely due to low runoff. This can be explained by the fact that the supply of waterways is mainly groundwater, and in winter it is reduced to a minimum.
Such a water regime of rivers, as West Siberian, occurs in the area of the forest zone. Spring flood is not sharp, stretched, does not differ high levels of water uplift. In summer and autumn, the runoff is increased, in the winter it is characteristic of the low water. Such "behavior" of the rivers is due to the flat relief and swampy lowlands on which they are located.
Rivers with the Eastern European and Kazakh regime
A characteristic high spring flood, an increased level of runoff in autumn (due to heavy precipitation) and low water in the summer and winter months clearly determine the eastern European regime of the river. Autumn floods are strong enough in all areas except the southern one. Small rivers with an area of no more than 300 km 2. are prone to drying out and freezing in summer and winter. For large watercourses, such phenomena are very rare.
For rivers with a Kazakh type, a high spring flood is typical, while in the summer, winter and autumn they are very shallow and mostly dry out. There are such flows in Kazakhstan, the Trans-Volga region, in the Aral-Caspian lowland region. In fact, they are distributed in those places where the source of food is only snow.